Bartlett, John Russell, comp. The Literature of the Rebellion: a
Catalogue of Books and Pamphlets Relating to the Civil War in the United States...
Boston: Draper & Halliday, 1866. 477p.
A catalog of the following types of Civil War publications: 1. books and
pamphlets published in the United States and Europe; 2. official publications of the
Federal government including those of the Executive branch; 3. official publications of
the states, including Adjutant-General offices; 4. official publications of the British
government; 5. publications of the U.S. Sanitary Commission; 6. articles
on the war in U.S. and European reviews and magazines 7. proceedings of city and town
governments in the U.S. and 8. Lincoln eulogies. 6,073 items are listed.
Dornbusch, C.E., comp. Military Bibliography of the Civil War,
NY: New York Public Library, 1961-1987.
Volume 1 covers the northern states. It divides by state, and lists
information sources about various regiments raised by the state. Volume 2 covers the
southern states, border states, and territories, and provides the same sort of information
as does Volume 1. Volume 3 is a guide to miscellaneous information on various Civil War
topics. Volume 4 includes regimental publications and addenda.
Smith, John David, comp. Black Slavery in the Americas: an
Interdisciplinary Bibliography, 1865-1980, 2 volumes.
Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1982.
Wonderful bibliography organized by subject. (1865-1980 refers to
publication date of the bibliography item.) Slave Trade, Slave Law, and African Background
of American Slaves are some of the subjects covered in Volume 1; Indian Ownership of
Slaves, Economics of Slavery, Slave Daily Life and Family Life, Slave Religion, Slave
Revolts, and Slaves and the Civil War are among the subjects covered in
Volume 2. A list of sources on Slavery in Missouri is on pp.856-865.
Thompson, Lawrence Sidney, comp. The Southern Black: Slave and
a Bibliography of Anti- and Pro-Slavery Books and Pamphlets, and of
Social and Economic Conditions in the Southern States from the
Beginnings to 1950.
Troy, NY: Whitson Publishing Co., 1970. 576 p.
An unannotated list (alphabetically by author) of works reprinted in
microcard format by the Lost Cause Press of Lexington, KY. Lack of indexing or
organization by subject makes this bibliography somewhat difficult to use.
II--BIOGRAPHICAL AND STATISTICAL INFORMATION
Litwack, Leon, and August Meier, eds. Black Leaders of the
Urbana: University of Illinois, 1988. 344 p.
Biographical sketches of seventeen black American leaders of the
nineteenth century. Among those included are Nat Turner, Harriet Tubman, and Frederick
Douglass: two chapters cover black leaders during Reconstruction. Bibliographic essay and
Curtin, Philip D. The Atlantic Slave Trade; a Census.
Madison: University of Wisconsin Press, 1969. 338 p.
A statistical analysis of the Atlantic slave trade. Includes numerous
maps and tables, including tables of mortality both for transported slaves and slaver
crews. An appendix reprints Koelle's Linguistic Inventory: excellent bibliography and
Foner, Eric. Freedom's Lawmakers: a Directory of
NY: Oxford University Press, 1993. 290p.
Biographical dictionary of black state and federal officeholders during
Reconstruction. Indexes by state and county of office, occupation, office held during
Reconstruction, birth status (born slave, born free, born slave but became free before
Civil War). Includes b&w portraits of some biographees.
Frazier, Edward Franklin. The Free Negro Family: a Study of
Origins Before the Civil War.
Nashville, TN: Fisk University Press, 1932. 75p.
Among the numerous tables of interest are these: 1. Growth of Slave and
free Negro population in the U.S., 1790-1860; 2. Distribution of free Negro population
according to state in 1830 and 1860; 3. Number of free Negroes in the populations of four
leading cities in 1790; and 4. School attendance and
illiteracy among the free Negro population in 16 cities, 1850. There is a short
Lutz, Alma. Crusade for Freedom: Women of the Anti-Slavery
Boston: Beacon Press, 1968. 338p.
Covers the period 1800-1850, and covers mainly white female
abolitionists. Bibliography and index.
Ruchames, Louis. The Abolitionists: a Collection of Their
NY: Capricorn Books, 1964. 259p.
Most selections were written during the 1830s and 1840s. Most cover
slavery in the United States. Short index.
Six Women's Slave Narratives.
NY: Oxford University Press, 1988. 328 p.
Personal narratives by six female ex-slaves. Women's slave narratives
came into being at the behest of the abolition movement. The abolitionists felt that slave
narratives helped add a human face to the anti-slavery movement.
United States. Bureau of the Census. The Social and Economic
the Black Population in the United States: an Historical View,
Washington, D.C.: U.S. Dept. of Commerce, Bureau of the Census, 1979. 271p.
A wealth of statistical data. Includes sections on population, income,
work force, education, family, health and mortality, housing, and voting. A contents
section at the beginning of each section includes a list of tables in that section.
United States. Works Progress Administration. Federal Writers Project. Slave
Narratives: a Folk History of Slavery in the United States from Interviews with Former
Slaves, 16 volumes.
Irvine, CA: Reprint Service, 1994.
Volume X covers narratives of 83 Missouri ex-slaves. Narratives range in
length from 1 to 15 pages (average is 4 pages or so). Interviews occurred during the Great
CHRONOLOGIES AND GAZETTEERS
Bergman, Peter M. The Chronological History of the Negro in
NY: Harper & Row, 1969. 698p.
Big sections on Slavery (pp. 1-240) and Reconstruction (pp. 241-281).
Includes a Bibliography of Bibliographies and a lengthy index (73 pages).
Cantor, George. Historic Landmarks of Black America.
Detroit: Gale Research, Inc., 1991. 372p.
Historical sketches on more than 300 sites related to African-American
history, including houses, birthplaces, grave sites, forts, battlefields, churches, etc..
Six-page chronology, good bibliography and index.
Christian, Charles Melvin. Black Saga: the African American
Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 1995. 608p.
A chronology which starts with Columbus's first voyage and concludes in
1994. The nineteenth century receives 212 pages of coverage. Excellent bibliography and
Harley, Sharon. The Timetables of African-American History: a
Chronology of the Most Important People and Events in African-
NY: Simon & Schuster, 1995. 400p.
A chronology which begins in 1492 and ends in 1992. Categories covered
include general history, education, laws and legal actions, religion, literature and the
press, the arts, science, technology, and medicine, and sports. Extensive index.
Hornsby, Alton. Chronology of African-American History:
Events and People from 1619 to the Present.
Detroit: Gale Research, Inc., 1991. 526p.
A chronology which unfortunately only devotes 57 of its 526 pages to the
17th, 18th, and 19th centuries. Good bibliography and index.
ATLANTIC SLAVE TRADE
Bandinel, James. Some account of the Trade in Slaves from Africa
as Connected with Europe and America from the Introduction of the Trade into Modern Europe
Down to the Present Time; Especially with Reference to the Efforts Made by the British
Government for Its Extinction.
London: Cass, 1968. 323p. ST-C
Account of the historical origins of the slave trade, and the efforts of
the British government to end it. Bandinel was an official of the British Foreign Office.
Buxton, Thomas Fowell. The African Slave Trade and Its Remedy.
London: Cass, 1967. 582p.
A British abolitionist's book on the slave trade, with his ideas on how
to suppress the trade. An extensive 20 page index.
Carey, Henry Charles. The Slave Trade, Domestic and Foreign: Why
Exists and How It May Be Extinguished.
NY: A.M. Kelley, 1967. 426p.
A reprint of a call for an end to the slave trade, justified for the
most part in purely economic terms. Indexed.
Conneau, Theophile. A Slaver's Log Book: or, Twenty Year's
Residence in Africa: the Original Manuscript.
Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall, 1976. 370p.
A complete translation of the manuscript left by Conneau at the time of
his death. Fascinating account by a literate and intelligent slaver of his time
spent in the Atlantic slave trade. Brief index.
Curtin, Philip D. Africa Remembered: Narratives by West Africans
From the Era of the Slave Trade.
Madison: University of Wisconsin Press, 1967.363p.
The personal narratives in this book were chosen to illustrate the
African side of the Atlantic slave trade. Each narrative includes an introduction and
annotations by a slave trade scholar. Lengthy index.
Donnan, Elizabeth. Documents Illustrative of the History of the
Slave Trade to America.
NY: Octagon Books, 1965, 4 volumes. ST-R 326
A four-volume set which gathers together documents illustrative of the
slave trade prior to 1808. Volume Four covers the Border Colonies and the Southern
Colonies, with an emphasis on South Carolina. Extensive 46 page index.
Dow, George Francis. Slave Ships and Slaving.
Port Washington, NY: Kennikat Press, 1969. 349p.
Not a detailed history of the slave trade, rather a lively account of
the sordid exploits of various individual slavers both before and after the banning of the
trade. Many illustrations, brief index.
Du Bois, W.E.B. The Suppression of the African Slave-Trade to
the United States of America, 1638-1870.
NY: Schocken Book, 1969. 335p.
In his classic work on the slave trade, Du Bois argues that more
vigorous enforcement of an existing ban on the importation of slaves to the U.S. could
possibly have prevented the Civil War and the anti-slavery violence of the 1850s. He also
argues that most U.S. 19th century slaver expeditions were financed by Northern merchants
and equipped in Northern ports like Boston and New York. Useful appendices include lists
of colonial, state, national, and international legislation restricting the African slave
trade, 1641-1864, and a list of cases against ships illegally engaging in the slave trade,
Howard, Thomas. Black Voyage: Eyewitness Accounts of the
Atlantic Slave Trade.
Boston: Little, Brown, 1971. 243p.
Recollections of the Atlantic slave trade by both slaves and slavers.
Includes a slave trade chronology and a map of slave trade sailing routes. Brief
Pope-Hennessy, James. Sins of the Fathers; a Study of the
Atlantic Slave Traders, 1441-1807.
NY: Knopf, 1968. 286p. ST-C
Readable study includes some helpful, wee-executed illustrations and
maps. Bibliography; index.
Spears, John Randolph. The American Slave-Trade; an Account of
Its Origin, Growth, and Suppression.
NY: Scribners, 1900. 232p.
A one-volume history of the Atlantic slave trade. It is the author's
contention that the tragedy of the slave trade is not that it existed at all, but that it
could have been run efficiently and profitably without any needless cruelty or hardship.
Includes two appendices listing persons arrested and vessels seized due to participation
in the slave trade from May 1, 1852 to May 1, 1862.
Thomas, Hugh. The Slave Trade: the Story of the Atlantic Slave
New York: Simon & Schuster, 1997. 908p.
A masterful (and highly readable) study of the Atlantic slave trade.
Thomas feels that the slave trade lasted so long because it supplied labor for tasks in
the New World for which other workers were not nearly as suitable, and because it was a
hugely profitable endeavor for ship captains, for venture capitalists in Europe and the
Americas, and for participating African chieftains. Many maps and illustrations; extensive
bibliographical note and index.
SLAVE LIFE, RELIGION, AND CULTURE
Bassett, John Spencer. The Southern Plantation Overseer as
Revealed in His Letters.
New York: Negro Universities Press, 1968. 280p.
A reprint of letters written by overseers working on the two plantations
owned by James K. Polk, eleventh president of the United States. Brief index.
Blassingame, John W. The Slave Community: Plantation Life in the
New York: Oxford University Press, 1972. 262p.
A look at the daily lives and working conditions of plantation slaves.
Includes several interesting appendices: "Comparative Examination of Total
Institutions"; "African Words, Numerals, and Sentences Used by Former Slaves in
Georgia and South Carolina in the 1890s"; and "Statistics
on Slaves and Slavery: Observations and Tables." Excellent bibliography and index.
Genovese, Eugene D. The Slave Economies.
New York: Wiley, 1973, 2 volumes.
A study of the impact of slavery on various economic markets. Includes
chapters or sections on ancient Greece, Africa, the West Indies and the Caribbean, South
America, and the southern United States.
Genovese, Eugene D. The World the Slaveholders Made: Two Essays
New York: Pantheon Books, 1969. 274p.
This book consists of two essays: the first is an attempt to provide a
framework for the comparative study of New World slavery from a Marxist perspective. The
second is a study of the life and philosophy of a Virginia planter, George Fitzhugh.
Litwack, Leon F. North of Slavery: the Negro in the Free States,
Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1961. 318p.
Chapters on economics, education, politics, abolition activities,
churches, and the relationship of the federal government to the free black. Index and
Mallard, Robert Q. Plantation Life Before Emancipation.
237p. ST-R 917.5
A look at prewar plantation life by an apologist for slavery. The author
felt that slavery was justified by scripture, and that slaveowners generally did much to
elevate their slaves both mentally and religiously. He also bitterly resented the efforts
of the abolitionists, who in his opinion stirred up longings for freedom in slaves who had
been perfectly content with their lots in life.
Owens, Leslie Howard. This Species of Property: Slave Life and
Culture Culture in the Old South.
New York: Oxford University Press, 1976. 291p.
Emphasis on the daily lives of plantation slaves: includes chapters on
household slaves and overseers. Good index; lengthy bibliographic notes section.
Phillips, Ulrich Bonnell. American Negro Slavery: a Survey of
the Supply, Employment, and Control of Negro Labor as Determined by the Plantation Regime.
Gloucester, MS: P. Smith, 1959. 529p.
Lengthy coverage of slave trade and plantation life: there are chapters
on business aspects of slavery, urban slaves, free blacks, slave crime, and slave law.
Phillips, Ulrich Bonnell. Life and Labor in the Old South.
Boston: Little, Brown, 1957. 375p.
Includes much information on slavery and plantation life. Good index.
Stampp, Kenneth M. The Peculiar Institution: Slavery in the
New York: Vintage Books, 1956. 435p.
A fascinating book about the day-to-day lives and concerns of slaves and
slaveholders. List of manuscripts consulted and their locations; extensive index.
Vlach, John Michael. Back of the Big House: the Architecture of
Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 1993. 258p.
A relatively unique look at the structures and work spaces which formed
the day-to-day environment of plantation slaves. Lots of b&w photographs and building
diagrams. Extensive source notes; indexed.
Wish, Harvey. Slavery in the South: First-hand Accounts of the
Ante-bellum American Southland from Northern and Southern Whites, Negroes, and Foreign
New York: Farrar, Straus, 1964. 290p.
Firsthand accounts by ex-slaves, fugitive slaves, British observers, and
SLAVE LAWS AND SLAVE REBELLIONS
Dixon, Archibald. History of Missouri Compromise and Slavery in
American Politics: a True History of the Missouri Compromise and Its Repeal, and African
Slavery as a Factor in American Politics.
New York: Johnson Reprint Corp., 1970. 623p.
A history of slavery in the United States and of federal legislation
regarding slavery from its origins to 1850. The author was the wife of the man who
introduced in the U.S. House the bill to repeal the Missouri Compromise.
Finkelman, Paul. Abolitionists in Northern Courts: the Pamphlet
New York: Garland Publishing, Inc., 1988. 524p.
Most included pamphlets were written during the period 1830-1850: there
is coverage of the Prudence Crandall and Elijah Lovejoy trials.
Finkelman, Paul, ed. Slave Rebels, Abolitionists, and Southern
Courts: the Pamphlet Literature, 2 volumes.
New York: Garland Publishing Co., 1988.
Reprints of pamphlets from the first half of the 19th century (most from
the period 1818-1850). Volume I includes several accounts of the Vesey and Turner
Finkelman, Paul. Slavery in the Courtroom: an Annotated
Bibliography of American Cases.
Washington, D.C.: Library of Congress, 1985.312p.
Annotations of court cases, and of books and pamphlets published at the
time which examine the court cases (coverage mainly for period 1772-1861). Includes a
table of cases and a list of illustrations. An appendix annotates important British court
cases. Extensive bibliography and index.
Pearson, Thomas A., and Anne Watts, comps. Legal Information,
St. Louis, MO: Saint Louis Public Library, 1996.
A gathering of court and legislative documents having to do with the
rights and privileges (or lack thereof) of black Americans in the 18th, 19th, and 20th
centuries. Volume I covers the 18th and 19th centuries; Volume II the 20th century.
AFRICAN-AMERICAN PARTICIPATION IN THE CIVIL WAR
Berlin, Ira, et al, eds. The Destruction of Slavery.
Cambridge & New York: Cambridge University Press, 1985. 852p.
This is volume I of a four-volume set of books (Freedom: a Documentary
History of Emancipation, 1861-1867) which reprint 40,000 documents selected from the
approximately 2,000,000 records in the National Archives which relate to the Civil War,
emancipation, and Reconstruction (1861-1867).
Each volume includes an introductory essay by a noted scholar. Extensive 33 page index.
Berry, Mary Frances. Military Necessity and Civil Rights Policy:
Black Citizenship and the Constitution, 1861-1868.
Port Washington, NY: Kennikat Press, 1977. 132p.
The author argues that a perceived necessity on the parts of Lincoln,
the War Department, and a majority in Congress to recruit black soldiers if the war was to
be won led directly to the 14th and 15th Amendments and to the various Civil Rights Acts
enacted during Reconstruction. It was thought that black soldiers would need to be
rewarded in some way to induce them to enlist. Helpful bibliographical essay and index add
to this book's value.
Drake, Charles D. Union and Anti-Slavery Speeches Delivered
During the Rebellion.
New York: Negro Universities Press, 1969. 431p.
Reprints wartime speeches of Drake, U.S. Senator from Missouri. Includes
"Immediate Emancipation in Missouri," "The Missouri State Convention and
Its Emancipation Work," "and "Camp Jackson: Its History and
Dyer, Frederick H. A Compendium of the War of the Rebellion,
Des Moines, IA: the Dyer Publishing Co., 1908.
Volume 1 is composed of numerous helpful lists, including a regimental
index. Volume 2 includes an alphabetical list of battles, campaigns, and skirmishes, plus
chronological lists by state of battles, campaigns, and skirmishes which took place in
that state. Volume 3 is a series of Union regimental histories (divided by state).
McPherson, James M. The Struggle for Equality: Abolitionists and
the Negro in the Civil War and Reconstruction.
Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 1964. 474p.
An effort to trace the history of the abolitionist movement during the
Civil War and Reconstruction. Chapter IX is a short but well-done history of black
participation in the military during the Civil War.
The Union Army: a History of Military Affairs in the Loyal
Madison, WI: Federal Publishing Co., 1908, 8 volumes.
The first four volumes are history (by state) of regiments from the
loyal states; volumes 5 & 6 are an alphabetical list of battles and skirmishes (which
in some cases include a fairly extensive account of the action in question); volume 7 has
information about the Union Navy; and volume 8 has short but useful biographical sketches
of Union generals (organized alphabetically).
United States. War Department. The War of the Rebellion: a
Compilation of Official Records of the Union and Confederate Armies, 70 volumes
Washington, D.C.: U.S. Government Printing Office, 1880-1901.
The official record of the war gathered together shortly after the war
by the War Department. The last volume is a general index to the set. This set is best
used to search for information about a particular regiment, officer, battle or campaign.
Each volume has its own index.
ABOLITION, EMANCIPATION, AND RECONSTRUCTION
Aptheker, Herbert. A Documentary History of the Negro People in
the United States, 2 volumes.
Secaucus, NJ: Citadel Press, 1994.
Volume 1 covers the slavery and Civil War periods: Volume 2 covers the
Reconstruction period. The two volumes reprint 450 documents which Aptheker feels help to
illustrate the history of African-Americans in the United States. An excellent index in
Volume 2 covers both volumes.
Bentley, George R. A History of the Freedmen's Bureau.
New York: Octagon Books, 1974. 298p.
In the author's view, the Freedmen's Bureau compiled a mixed record.
Some of its proponents were motivated by a real desire to help the newly freed slaves, and
they to some extent succeeded. Others were motivated by a desire to exploit the situation
for their personal gain, and many of them also succeeded. Extensive bibliography and
Brown, B. Gratz. Speech of the Hon. B. Gratz Brown, o St. Louis,
on the Subject of Gradual Emancipation in Missouri, Delivered in the House of
Representatives, February 12, 1857.
St. Louis, MO: 1857. 26p.
Brown argued that gradual emancipation was already happening in Missouri
without the impetus of legislation, because slave labor was competing with free market
labor and was losing, because the immigration boom was producing a surplus of cheap free
Coulter, E. Merton. The South During Reconstruction, 1865-1877.
Baton Rouge: Louisiana State University Press, 1947.
426p. ST-R 975
This is Volume VIII of a ten-volume set called A History of the South.
Extensive bibliographic essay and index.
Glover, Samuel Taylor. Emancipation in Missouri. Speech of
Samuel T. Glover, Esq., Delivered at Turners' Hall, St. Louis, Mo., on Wednesday Evening,
June 25th, 1862.
St. Louis, MO: 1862.16p.
Glover was opposed to slavery and anxious to maintain the Federal union.
His attack on the institution of slavery consisted of two main points: first, in spite of
various arguments to the contrary, the only reason slave states had to launch the
rebellion was to defend the morally indefensible
practice of slave-keeping. Second, slavery was a detriment to all whom it touched,
slaveholders and slaves alike. Slaves hated it, of course, while slaveholders lived in
dread of a slave rebellion. Southern non-slaveholders were expected to help defend the
property and positions of those who did.
Goodell, William. Slavery and Anti-Slavery: a History of the
Great Struggle in Both Hemispheres; With a View of the Slavery Question in the United
New York: Negro Universities Press, 1968.
604p. ST-C 973
The author's aim was to present in one volume a history of slavery and
of the abolition movement. Indexed.
Harrold, Stanley. The Abolitionists and the South, 1831-1861.
Lexington: University of Kentucky Press, 1995. 245p.
This book examines the activities of abolitionists in the border states
and, to a lesser extent, in the southern states. He also looks at the interactions of
these abolitionists with abolitionists in the North. Extensive bibliography and index.
Hawkins, Hugh. The Abolitionists: Means, Ends, and Motivations.
Lexington, MS: Heath Pub., 1972. 230p.
An examination of the strategy and tactics employed by the
"immediatists" and the "gradualists" in the abolition movement.
Sections written by abolition scholars alternate with sections written by the
abolitionists themselves. Includes suggestions for further reading.
Kraditor, Aileen S. Means and Ends in American Abolitionism:
Garrison and His Critics on Strategy and Tactics, 1834-1850.
New York: Pantheon Books, 1969. 296p.
An examination of the strategies and tactics adopted by the
abolitionists during the period 1830-1850. Includes a discussion of the role of women in
the abolition movement. Indexed.
Owen, Robert. The Wrong of Slavery, the Right of Emancipation,
and the Future of the African Race in the United States.
Philadelphia: J.B. Lippincott & Co., 1864. 246p.
A history of slavery and the slave trade by an author who believed in
immediatism, i.e., that slaves should immediately declared free and their owners owed no
compensation in the rebel states, while slaveowners in loyal states would be compensated
for their loss.
Quarles, Benjamin. Black Abolitionists.
New York: Oxford University Press, 1969. 310p.
An attempt to focus attention on black abolitionists, whom the author
feels have been largely ignored because the southern press of the period focused almost
exclusively on white abolitionists. Stories about black abolitionists ran counter to the
widespread Southern notion that blacks were content with their lot in life. Extensive
chapter notes and index.
Ripley, C. Peter, et al., eds. The Black Abolitionist Papers.
Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 1985--.
This five-volume set is the result of an effort begun in 1976 to gather
together the various published writings and personal papers of black abolitionists from
the United States, Canada, and Great Britain for the period 1830-1865. Volume 1 covers
Great Britain, Volume 2 Canada, and Volumes 3-5 the United States. Volume 3 includes a 65
page introductory essay and an extensive 37 page index.
Rollins, James S. Emancipation in Missouri: Speech of Hon. James
S. Rollins, of Missouri, in the House of Representatives February 28th, 1863, on the
Question of Making an Appropriation for the Emancipation of Slaves in the State of
St. Louis: George Knapp & Co., 1863. 12p.
In the wake of the Emancipation Proclamation, numerous proposals were
advanced for freeing the slaves in border states loyal to the Union. Rollins' proposal
asked that $40,000,000 be appropriated by Congress to purchase Missouri slaves and
repatriate them to Africa.
Smith, John David. Black Voices From Reconstruction, 1865-1877.
Brookfield, CT: Millbrook Press, 1996. 174p.
A collection of original documents (published writings, letters,
congressional testimony, etc.) recording the hopes and fears of various Southern blacks
during the Reconstruction period (1865-1877). Illustrations; short bibliography and index.
Takaki, Ronald T. A Pro-Slavery Crusade: the Agitation to Reopen
the African Slave Trade.
New York: Free Press, 1971. 276p.
The author argues that much of the pre-Civil War agitation by white
Southerners was not mainly a result of sectional conflict as many believe. He believes
that much of the agitation resulted from two factors: the increasing rigidity of Southern
society, and the increasing moral anxiety of white Southerners, especially slaveholders. A
Southern society that had earlier seen families rise from the role of tenant farmers to
plantation owners in one generation was by the time of the Civil War an aristocracy
created with the labor of increasing expensive and hard to acquire slaves. Significant
numbers of the aristocracy, Takaki claims, many of them fairly religious people, were
troubled by the nature of their power base: the labor of slaves.
Wood, Forrest G. Black Scare: the Racist Response to
Emancipation and Reconstruction.
Berkeley: University of California Press, 1968. 219p.
The author argues that modern racism did not begin during the Civil War.
He feels rather that the end of the war and subsequent universal emancipation polarized
already existing feelings that blacks were by nature inferior to whites. Racist demagogues
in the South and elsewhere fanned the flames of racial hatred with printed materials and
speeches. Lengthy bibliography; indexed.