A TIME LINE OF EVENTS FROM 1683-1978
from Germany during this period is caused mainly by religious persecution & economic
hardship. Emigration includes a large number of Protestants from the Palatinate (southwest
||First permanent German settlement
in U.S. is founded at Germantown, PA.
Protestants settle in Pennsylvania, New York & Virginia. German Catholics begin
arriving in Maryland. Approximately 200,000 Germans emigrate to U.S. during this period
& 70,000 of them settle in Pennsylvania.
||Most intense winter in memory
begins in Germany in October 1708 & continues until April 1709. The intense cold
destroys fruit trees & vineyards. Many Germans leave southwest Germany for London.
British government originally encourages settlement of German Protestants in Ireland, but
later encourages their settlement in America.
||Groups of German
settlers leave England bound for the Carolinas & New York.
||Large numbers of Hessians (German
soldiers hired out by their monarchs to the King of Great Britain) serve in the British
Army during the American Revolution. At least 12,000 desert & remain behind in America
rocks Europe. Various European wars occur during this time period.
||Napoleonic wars. France is more
or less constantly at war with one or more other European powers, including Prussia &
Germany during this time period is caused mainly by economic hardship & war.
Emigration includes large numbers of persons from Alsace- Lorraine, Baden, Hessen,
Rheinland & Wurttemberg (southeast Germany).
||Revolutions in Europe begin.
Various German principalities rebel, although rebellion is most widespread in Baden.
||After the revolutions
fail, revolutionaries flee to Zurich, London & America.
||Hamburg passenger lists begin.
Hamburg & Bremen become popular places to emigrate from because city fathers realize
that money can be made feeding & housing emigrants while they wait to sail & by
making them pay a tax to emigrate. Bremen is more popular because it has a reputation for
treating emigrants better than does Hamburg.
||The advent of the
steamship in the 1850s cuts trans-Atlantic travel time from 43 days (sailing ship) to 13
||250,000 Germans arrive in at U.S.
||Germans who serve in
the Union Army can become American citizens after 1 year of residency in the U.S. States
like Pennsylvania & New York actively recruit Army volunteers in Germany, paying their
passage & enlistment bounties.
||Prussia defeats Austria in Seven
||Many men flee Germany
to avoid serving in the Franco-Prussian War. German Empire founded in 1871.
||Emigration to the U.S. becomes
more common from all parts of Germany.
||Civil registration is
required by the central government. Civil registration had already begun in some
||200,000 Germans arrive at U.S.
populations are living in NY, PA, OH, IL, MN, WI & MO. Seventy thousand German-born
persons are living in the Deep South, including 15,000 in New Orleans. More German
citizens are living in New York City than in Hamburg, Germany.
||Between 1820-1920, more than 5.5
million Germans emigrate to U.S., more than any other nationality, including the Irish
||Nearly all existing
Bremen passenger lists are destroyed during Allied bombing raid on October 6, 1944. All
that remains are some records for 1907 & 1913-1914.
||A study shows that nearly 7
million Germans settled in U.S. between 1820-1977.