BULLET Frankenstein Bibliography
Fiction and Science Fiction | Books with Criticisms | Romantic Period | Gothic Fiction | Cassettes and CDs | Fiction Books for Children or Young Adults | Non-Fiction Books for Children or Young Adults | Issues Raised | Films | Websites

This bibliography examines the monster and the scientist whose story has become one of the most enduring myths of the Western world since Mary Shelley published her book, Frankenstein, in 1818. It also illustrates how Frankenstein has become a symbol for public fears about groundbreaking new scientific techniques which often challenge our under-standing of what is "natural" such as cloning, organ transplants, and genetically modified foods.

Books on this list can be borrowed from your library. St. Louis Public Library cardholders can use the Library's online catalog to find specific locations where these books can be found.

A Selected Bibliography of Fiction and Science Fiction based on, or related to, Mary Shelley’s Frankenstein

Aldiss, Brian W. Frankenstein Unbound. New York: Random House, 1973

Anderson, C. Dean. I am Frankenstein. New York: Kensington Publishing, 1996.

Bram, Christopher. Father of Frankenstein. New York: Dutton, 1995.

Clarke, Arthur C. The Collected Stories of Arthur C. Clarke. New York: Tor, 2001. (Includes Dial F for Frankenstein.)

Cooper, Stephen R. The Diary of Victor Frankenstein. New York: DK Ink, 1997.

Greenberg, Martin H. Frankenstein: The Monster Wakes. New York: DAW Books, 1993.

Jacobs, David. The Devil’s Brood: The New Adventures of Dracula, Frankenstein & the Universal Monsters. New York: Berkley Boulevard Books, 2000.

Jacobs, David. The Devil’s Night: The New Adventures of Dracula, Frankenstein & the Universal Monsters. New York: Berkley Boulevard Books, 2001.

The Mammoth Book of Frankenstein. Edited by Stephen Jones. New York: Carroll & Graf Publishers, 1994.

Myers, Robert J. The Cross of Frankenstein. Philadelphia: Lippincott, 1975.

Myers, Robert J. The Slave of Frankenstein. Philadelphia: Lippincott, 1976.

Roszak, Theodore. The Memoirs of Elizabeth Frankenstein. New York: Random House, 1995.

Saberhagen, Fred. The Frankenstein Papers. New York: Baen Enterprises, 1986.

The Ultimate Frankenstein. Edited by Byron Preiss. New York: Dell Pub., 1991.

Venables, Hubert. The Frankenstein Diaries. New York: Viking Press, 1980.

West, Charles G. The Tenant: A Novel of Medical Science Fiction. Aurora, CO: Write Way Publishing, 1995.

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A Selected Bibliography of Books with Criticisms, Commentary, and Analyses about, or related to, Mary Shelley’s Frankenstein and Mary Shelley

20: The Best of the Drue Heinz Literature Prize. Edited by John Edgar Wideman. Pittsburgh: University of Pittsburgh Press, 2001. (Includes the short story, Frankenstein Meets the Ant People, by Jonathan Penner.)

Angoff, Charles. The Humanities in the Age of Science. Rutherford, NJ: Farleigh Dickinson University Press, 1968.

Baldick, Chris. In Frankenstein’s Shadow: Myth, Monstrosity and Nineteenth-Century Writing. Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1987.

Barker, Clive. Incarnations: Three Plays. New York: HarperPrism, 1995. (Includes Frankenstein in Love.)

Bennett, Betty T. Mary Wolstonecraft Shelley: An Introduction. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1998.

Bennett, Betty T. Mary Shelley in Her Times. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 2000.

Branagh, Kenneth. Mary Shelley’s Frankenstein: A Classic Tale of Terror Reborn on Film. New York: Newmarket Press, 1994.

Dunn, Jane. Moon in Eclipse: A Life of Mary Shelley. New York: St. Martin’s Press, 1978.

The Endurance of Frankenstein: Essays on Mary Shelley’s Novel. Edited by George Levine and U.C. Knoepflmacher. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1979.

Florescu, Radu R. N. In Search of Frankenstein. Boston: New York Graphic Society, 1975.

Forrey, Steven Earl. Hideous Progenies: Dramatizations of Frankenstein from Mary Shelley to the Present. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 1990.

Gerson, Noel. Daughter of Earth and Water: A Biography of Mary Wolstonecraft Shelley. New York: Morrow, 1973.

Glut, Donald. The Frankenstein Catalog. Jefferson, NC: McFarland, 1984. [Donald Glut is appearing as the speaker for the opening reception for the exhibit, Frankenstein: Penetrating the Secrets of Nature, at Central Library on November 17, 2003.]

Glut, Donald. The Frankenstein Legend: A Tribute to Mary Shelley and Boris Korloff. Metuchen, NJ: Scarecrow Press, 1973.

Harris, Janet. The Woman Who Created Frankenstein. New York: Harper & Row, 1979.

Kelly, Tim J. Frankenstein: A Play in Two Acts. New York: S. French, 1974.

Levine, George Lewis. The Realistic Imagination: English Fiction from Frankenstein to Lady Chatterley. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1981.

Lowe-Evans, Mary. Critical Essays on Mary Wollstonecraft Shelley. New York: G.K. Hall, 1998.

Lowe-Evans, Mary. Frankenstein: Mary Shelley’s Wedding Guest. New York: Twayne Publishers, 1993.

Mary Shelley’s Frankenstein. Edited by Harold Bloom. New York: Chelsea House, 1996.

Mellor, Anne K. Mary Shelley: Her Life, Her Fiction, Her Monsters. New York: Methuen, 1988.

Muller, Herbert Joseph. The Children of Frankenstein: A Primer on Modern Technology and Human Values. Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 1970.

Nitchie, Elizabeth. Mary Shelley: Author of "Frankenstein." New Brunswick: Rutgers University Press, 1953.

Nichols, Joan Kane. Mary Shelley, Frankenstein’s Creator: First Science Fiction Writer. Berkeley, CA: Conari Press, 1998.

Picart, Caroline Joan. The Frankenstein Film Sourcebook. Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 2001.

Seymour, Miranda. Mary Shelley. New York: Grove Press, 2000.

Shelley, Mary Wollstonecraft. The Annotated Frankenstein. Introduction and notes by Leonard Wolf. New York: C. N. Potter, 1977.

Shelley, Mary Wollstonecraft. Frankenstein: Complete, Authoritative Text with Biographical and Historical Contexts, Critical History, and Essays from Five Contemporary Critical Perspectives. Edited by Johanna M. Smith. Boston: Bedford Books of St. Martin’s Press, 1992.

Small, Christopher. Mary Shelley’s Frankenstein: Tracing the Myth. Pittsburgh: University of Pittsburgh Press, 1972.

Smith, Johanna M. Mary Shelley. New York: Twayne Publishers, 1996.

Tropp, Martin. Mary Shelley’s Monster: The Story of Frankenstein. Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 1976.

Umland, Samuel J. Frankenstein: Notes. Lincoln, NE: Cliff Notes, 1982.

Zimmerman, Phyllis. Shelley’s Fiction. Los Angeles, CA: Darami Press, 1998.

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A Selected Bibliography on the Writers and the Literature of the Romantic Period that included Mary Shelley

English writers of the Romantic Period

Percy Bysshe Shelley, 1792-1822

Blank, G. Kim. The New Shelley: Later Twentieth-Century Views. New York: St. Martin’s Press, 1991.

Blunden, Edmund. Shelley: A Life Story. New York: Oxford University Press, 1965.

Florescu, Radu R. N. In Search of Frankenstein. Boston: New York Graphic Society, 1975.

McNeice, Gerald. Shelley and the Revolutionary Idea. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1969.

Mary Wollstonecraft Shelley, 1797-1851 (see A Selected Bibliography of Books with Criticisms, Commentary, and Analyses about, or related to, Mary Shelley’s Frankenstein and Mary Shelley)

George Gordon (Lord) Byron, 1788-1824

Graham, Peter. Lord Byron. New York: Twayne Publishers, 1998.

Grosskurth, Phyllis. Byron: The Flawed Angel. Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 1997.

Moore, Thomas. Life of Lord Byron, with His Letters and Journals. London: J. Murray, 1851.

Quennell, Peter. Byron, the Years of Fame. New York: Viking Press, 1935.

John Keats, 1795-1821

Barnard, John. John Keats. New York: Cambridge University Press, 1987.

Bate, Walter Jackson. Keats: A Collection of Critical Essays. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall, 1964.

De Almeida, Hermione. Critical Essays on John Keats. Boston: G.K. Hall, 1990.

Motion, Andrew. Keats. New York: Farrar, Straus and Giroux, 1997.

Coleridge, Samuel Taylor, 1772-1834

Beer, John. Coleridge’s Variety: Bicentenary Studies. Pittsburgh: University of Pittsburgh Press, 1975.

Holmes, Richard. Coleridge: Early Visions. New York: Viking, 1990.

Holmes, Richard. Coleridge: Darker Reflections, 1804-1934. New York: Pantheon Books, 1999.

Lefebure, Molly. Samuel Taylor Coleridge: A Bondage of Opium. New York: Stein and Day, 1974.

Orr, Leonard. Critical essays on Samuel Taylor Coleridge. New York: G.K. Hall, 1994.

Weissman, Stephen M. His Brother’s Keeper: A Psychobiography of Samuel Taylor Coleridge. Madison, CT: International Universities Press, 1989.

William Blake, 1757-1827

Adams, Hazard. Critical Essays on William Blake. Boston: G. K. Hall, 1991.

Hamlyn, Robin and Michael Phillips. William Blake. New York: H. N. Abrams, 2001.

Robert Burns, 1759-1796

McIntyre, Ian. Dirt & Diety: A Life of Robert Burns. London: HarperCollins, 1995.

Mackay, James A. RB: A Biography of Robert Burns. Edinburgh, Mainstream Publ., 1992.

Sir Walter Scott, 1771-1832

Hagenknecht, Edward. Sir Walter Scott. New York: Continuum, 1991.

Sutherland, John. The Life of Walter Scott: A Critical Biography. Oxford, UK: Blackwell, 1995.

William Wordsworth, 1770-1850

Barker, Juliet. Wordsworth: A Life in Letters. London: Viking, 2002.

Johnston, Kenneth R. The Hidden Wordsworth: Poet, Lover, Rebel, Spy. New York: H.H. Norton, 1998.

Mahoney, John. William Wordsworth: A Poetic Life. New York: Fordham University Press, 1997.

American Writers of the Romantic Period

William Cullen Bryant, 1794-1878

Peckham, Harry Houston. Gotham Yankee: A Biography of William Cullen Bryant. New York, Vantage Press, 1950.

Washington Irving 1783-1859

Johnston, Johanna. The Heart That Would Not Hold: A Biography of Washington Irving. New York: M. Evans, 1971.

James Fenimore Cooper 1789-1851

Clark, Robert. James Fenimore Cooper: New Critical Essays. London: Vision, 1985.

Ringe, Donald A. James Fenimore Cooper. Boston: Twayne, 1988.

Edgar Allen Poe, 1809-1849

Bloom, Harold. Edgar Allen Poe. Philadelphia: Chelsea House, 2002.

Kennedy, Gerald. A Historical Guide to Edgar Allen Poe. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2001.

Rosenheim, Shawn and Stephen Rachman. The American Face of Edgar Allen Poe. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1995.

Nathaniel Hawthorne, 1804-1864

Bloom, Harold. Nathaniel Hawthorne. Broomall, PA: Chelsea House, 2001.

Hagenknecht, Edward. Nathaniel Hawthorne: The Man, His Tales and Romances. New York: Continuum, 1989.

Reynolds, Larry J. A Historical Guide to Nathaniel Hawthorne. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2001.

Henry Wadsworth Longfellow 1807-1882

Hagenknecht, Edward. Henry Wadsworth Longfellow: Portrait of an American Humanist. New York: Oxford University Press, 1966.

Hirsh, Edward L. Henry Wadsworth Longfellow. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 1964.

Williams, Cecil B. Henry Wadsworth Longfellow. New York, Twayne Publishers, 1964.

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A Selected Bibliography of Gothic Fiction

Austen, Jane. Mansfield Park. New York: Modern Library, 1995.

Austen, Jane. Northanger Abbey. New York: Modern Library, 1995.

Austen, Jane. Persuasion. New York: Modern Library, 1995.

Austen, Jane. Pride & Prejudice. New York: Modern Library, 1995.

Austen, Jane. Sense & Sensibility. New York: Modern Library, 1995.

Beckwith, William. "Vathek" in Three Gothic Novels. Ed. Peter Fairclough. Baltimore: Penguin, 1968.

Bronte, Charlotte. Jane Eyre. New York: Modern Library, 1997.

Bronte, Emily. Wuthering Heights. New York: Heritage Press, n.d.

Brown, Charles Brockden. Three Gothic Novels. New York: Library of America, 1998.

Radcliffe, Ann Ward. The Italian, Or, the Confessional of the Black Penitents: A Romance. London: Oxford University Press, 1968.

Shelley, Mary Wollstonecraft. Frankenstein, Or, the Modern Prometheus. New York: Dodd, Mead, 1983. [Note: St. Louis Public Library has many other editions of the book, Frankenstein.]

Shelley, Mary Wollstonecraft. The Last Man. New York: Bantam Books, 1994.

Shelley, Mary Wollstonecraft. Maurice, or, the Fisher’s Cot. New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 1998.

Walpole, Horace. The Castle of Otranto. New York: Rinehard & Winston, 1963.

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A Selected Bibliography Cassettes and CDs with a Frankenstein theme

Cinncinnati Pops Orchestra. Chiller [sound recording]. Cleveland, OH: Telarc, 1989. (1 sound disc (58:20): digital, stereo; 4 in.)

Doyle, Patrick. Mary Shelley’s Frankenstein [sound recording]. New York: Epic Soundtrax, 1994. (1 sound disc (70 min.): digital; 4 in.)

Elvira Presents Monster Hits [sound recording]. Los Angeles, CA: Rhino, 1994. (1 sound cassette: analog, Dolby processed.)

Golden Age Radio Thriller [sound recording]. Plymouth, MN: Metacom, 1991. (4 sound cassettes (ca. 4 hr.): analog.)

Monster Rock n’ Roll Show [sound recording]. Northridge, CA: DDC Compact Classics, 1990. (1 sound disc: digital; 4 in.)

Roszak, Theodore. The Memoirs of Elizabeth Frankenstein [sound recording]. New York: Simon & Schuster Audio, 1995. (4 sound cassettes (ca. 4 hr., 30 min.): analog, stereo., Dolby processed.)

Shelley, Mary Wollstonecraft. Frankenstein [sound recording]. New York: Simon & Schuster Audio, 1994. (2 sound cassettes (ca. 3 hr.): analog, stereo., Dolby processed.)

Shelley, Mary Wollstonecraft. Frankenstein [sound recording]. Newport Beach, CA: Books on Tape, 2002. (7 sound cassettes (10.5 hrs.): analog.)

Shelley, Mary Wollstonecraft. Frankenstein [sound recording]. Prince Frederick, MD: Recorded Books, 1993. (9 sound discs (9 hrs., 30 min.): digital; 4 in.)

Shelley, Mary Wollstonecraft. Frankenstein [sound recording]. Prince Frederick, MD: Recorded Books, 1993. (7 sound cassettes (9 hr., 30 min.): analog.

Spine Chilling Tales of Horror. [sound recording]. New York: HarperCollins, 2002. (4 cassettes (6 hr.): analog.)

Spine Chilling Tales of Horror. [sound recording}. New York: HarperCollins, 2002. (6 sound discs (6 hrs.): digital; 4 in.)

Winter, Edgar. I’m Not a Kid Anymore [sound recording]. United Kingdom: Thunder Bolt, 1994. (Includes the selection, Frankenstein.) (1 sound disc (51 min.): digital; 4 in.)

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A Selected Bibliography of Fiction Books about, or related to, Mary Shelley’s Frankenstein for Children or Young Adults

Adam, Addie. Hilda and the Mad Scientist. New York: Dalton Childrens Book, 1995.

Burgan, Michael. Frankenstein. New York: HarperPaperbacks, 1996.

Cousins, Steven. Frankenbug. New York: Holiday House, 2000.

Dadey, Debbie and Marcia Thornton Jones. The Bride of Frankenstein Doesn’t Bake Cookies. New York: Scholastic, 2000.

Dadey, Debbie and Marcia Thornton Jones. Frankenstein Doesn’t Plant Petunias. New York: Scholastic, 1993.

Dadey, Debbie and Marcia Thornton Jones. Frankenstein Doesn’t Slam Hockey Pucks. New York: Scholastic, 1998.

Gelsey, James. Scooby-doo! And the Frankenstein Monster. New York: Scholastic, 2000.

Gilden, Mel. The Pet of Frankenstein. New York: Avon Books, 1988.

Grant, John. Frankenstein. London: Usborne Pub. Ltd., 1997.

Green, Carl and William R. Sanford. Bride of Frankenstein. Mankato, MN: Crestwood House, 1985.

Henry, Robert. Frankenstein. New York: Golden Book, 1991.

Levy, Elizabeth. Frankenstein Moved in on the Fourth Floor. New York: Harper & Row, 1979.

Pratchett, Terry. Diggers. New York: Delacorte Press, 1989.

Shelley, Mary Wollstonecraft. Frankenstein. New York: Viking Press, 1997.

Shelley, Mary Wollstonecraft. Frankenstein (PBS Wishbone Classics Series #7). New York: Harper Paperbacks, 1996.

Wahl, Jan. Frankenstein’s Dog. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall, 1977.

Whitcher, Susan. Real Mummies Don’t Bleed: Friendly Tales for October Nights. New York: Farrar Straus Giroux, 1993.

Winberg, Larry. Frankenstein. New York: Stepping Stone Book, 1982.

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A Selected Bibliography of Non-Fiction Books about, or related to, Mary Shelley’s Frankenstein for Children or Young Adults

Ames, Lee J. Draw 50 Monsters, Creeps, Superheroes, Demons, Dragons, Nerds, Dirts, Ghouls, Giants, Vampires, Zombies, and Other Curiosa… New York: Broadway Books, 1983.

Funston, Sylvia. Monsters: A Strange Science Book. Toronto: Owl Book, 2001.

Harris, Janet. The Woman Who Created Frankenstein: A Portrait of Mary Shelley. New York: Harper & Row, 1979.

Kudalis, Eric. Frankenstein and Other Stories of Man-Made Monsters. Minneapolis, MN: Capstone Press, 1994.

McNaughton, Colin. Making Friends with Frankenstein: A Book of Monstrous Poems and Pictures. Cambridge, MA: Candlewick Press, 1994.

Nicolson, Cynthia Pratt. Baa! The Most Interesting Book You’ll Ever Read about Genes and Cloning. Toronto: Kids Can Press, 2001.

Parker, Steve. Frankenstein. Brookfield, CT: Copper Beech Books, 1995. (Examines science at the time the original "Frankenstein" was written…)

Powers, Tom. Movie Monsters. Minneapolis, MN: Lerner Publications Co., 1989.

Tagliaferro, Linda. Genetic Engineering: Progress or Peril? Minneapolis, MN: Lerner Publishing, 1997.

Thorne, Ian. Frankenstein. Mankato, MN: Crestwood House, 1977. (Briefly discusses the origin of the Frankenstein legend and the portrayal… in films.)

Thorne, Ian. Frankenstein Meets Wolfman. Mankato, MN: Crestwood House, 1981.

Wisniewski. Golem. New York: Clarion, 1996.

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The Following Bibliographies include Issues Raised by, or Related to, Mary Shelley’s Frankenstein

Medical and Ethical Issues in Cloning, Reproductive Technology, and Organ Transplantation: A Selected, Annotated Bibliography

Andrews, Lori B. The Clone Age: Adventures in the New World of Reproductive Technology. New York: Henry Holt and Company, 1999.

An attorney and expert on the legal and ethical implications of reproductive technology examines some of the more pressing issues in the field. For example, is a human embryo a person, property, or something else entirely? Should parents be able to buy genes for superior intelligence or athletic ability for their children? The author closely examines these issues and other pressing concerns in the field.

Boylan, Michael, and Kevin E. Brown. Genetic Engineering: Science and Ethics on the New Frontier. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall, 2001.

This book is divided into three sections: "Basic Ethics," "The Science of Genetic Engineering," and "Ethics in Genetic Engineering." There is also a "Glossary of Scientific and Ethical Terms," a list of "Interesting Web Sites," a bibliography and an index.

The Ethics of Human Cloning. Ed. by William Dudley. San Diego, CA: Greenhaven Press, 2001.

This is part of the Greenhaven "At Issue" series. Each book in the series focuses on a single controversial issue, and provides in-depth discussions by leading advocates of particular viewpoints. A few of the articles included are "Human Cloning is Inherently Unethical," "Cloning Could Place an Unfair Burden on Clones," "Only Married Couples Should Be Allowed to Clone," and "Cloning Human Embryos for Medical Purposes is Unethical." It has a list of "Organizations to Contact," a bibliography and an index.

The Ethics of Organ Transplants. Ed. by Arthur L. Caplan and Daniel H. Coelho. Amherst, NY: Promethean Books, 1999.

A look at ethical issues in the field of human organ transplantation. Examined are such questions as, "How are we to meet the growing need for organs for transplantation?" "Should people be permitted to sell their organs?" "Should animals be sacrificed to provide transplant organs to save the lives of humans?" "Should hospitals and the government be able to harvest usable organs from the dead without the permission of the deceased or his or her next of kin?" Also considered is the use of genetic engineering and reproductive technology to grow organs using fetal tissue. A bibliography is included.

The Future of Human Reproduction: Ethics, Choice, and Regulation. Ed. by John Harris and Soren Holm. Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1999.

An overview that brings together articles by an international group of contributors on ethical, social, and legal issues raised by recent advances in reproductive technology. A bibliography and index are included.

Gosden, Roger. Designing Babies: The Brave New World of Reproductive Technology. New York: W. H. Freeman and Company, 1999.

This is an overview of the ongoing revolution in reproductive technology. The increasing ability of doctors and scientists to manipulate fertility and shape genetic destinies is both raising hopes and creating fears. Glossary, bibliography, and index follow.

Green, Ronald M. The Human Embryo Research Debates. New York: Oxford University Press, 2001.

Human embryo research has met powerful opposition, even though it appears likely to hold out the promise of cures for many serious diseases, including diabetes and Alzheimer's disease. The author, a member of NIH's Human Embryo Research Panel, discusses many of the questions considered by the panel, such as "What role should religion play in shaping national biomedical policy in controversial areas such as human embryo research?" It has a bibliography and index, and two appendices: Stages of Embryonic Development; and, National Institutes of Health Human Embryo Research Panel: Categories of Research.

Kolata, Gina. Clone: The Road to Dolly and the Path Ahead. New York: William Morrow and Company, 1998.

The story of the cloning of Dolly, by the reporter who broke the story in the U.S. in the New York Times. Kolata had access to Dr. Ian Wilmut, leader of the Dolly research team, and to members of his team. She explains how and why Dolly's birth was possible, and also examines the largely unreported events that led up to the cloning of Dolly. A "Notes" section and index are available.

Manto, Gina. Quest for Perfection: The Drive to Breed Better Human Beings. New York: Scribners, 1996.

A look at the history of society's attempts to control human destiny by regulating birth outcomes. It includes a look at the eugenics movement, and at the extremes to which Nazi Germany took eugenics. The author's story begins with experiments in artificial insemination in the 1800s, continues to in vitro fertilization experiments in the 1970s, and concludes with a look at possible futures given the current state of affairs in the field.

Munson, Ronald. Raising the Dead: Organ Transplants, Ethics, and Society. New York: Oxford University Press, 2002.

Every year some 25,000 Americans are spared death because of organ transplants. Another 5,000 die while waiting for transplants. Each chapter in this book explores a question such as who gets an organ for transplantation and who doesn't by first examining a specific case, such as the Mickey Mantle liver transplant, and then by taking a careful look at the ethical issues touched on by that case. Also considered are xenotransplantation (transplanting animal organs in human bodies), and stem cell technology, which will allow doctors to grow new organs from a patient's own cells. The book has a bibliography and index.

Pence, Gregory E. Who's Afraid of Human Cloning? Lanham , MD: Rowman & Littlefield Publishers, 1998.

An argument for cloning and genetic engineering, the author tries to present both sides of the issues, but he still manages to make a compelling case for allowing cloning and genetic engineering research to proceed largely unfettered by government regulations and restrictions. An index is included.

Silver, Lee M. Remaking Eden: Cloning and Beyond in a Brave New World. New York: Avon Books, 1997.

A Princeton University professor looks at cloning and other "reprogenetic" technologies such as cryogenics and in-vitro fertilization. He examines the current state of affairs in these fields, then speculates on where science might be headed in the future when it comes to these technologies (for example, "designer" children and expectant fathers). It includes a very lengthy (and interesting) "Notes" section and an index.

Stock, Gregory. Redesigning Humans: Our Inevitable Genetic Future. Boston: Houghton Mifflin Company, 2002.

The author feels that it is a serious mistake to cut off research in new technologies like cloning, stem cell research, and cell therapy, as some special interest groups have attempted, in an effort to safeguard society against vague possible future misuses of these new technologies. He suggests that government follow a mostly hands-off policy until these infant technologies have been allowed to grow and mature. He further believes that genetic engineering and advances in reproductive technology will offer such tremendous advantages to parents over the traditional system of "genetic roulette" that the federal government and religious groups will be unable to stop the coming phenomenon of "designer babies" in any event. Includes a bibliography, index, and several appendices. One appendix, "Challenges to Come," includes eight thought-provoking questions that could be used by discussion groups or school classes to examine issues in reproductive technology.

Wilmut, Ian, Keith Campbell, and Colin Tudge. The Second Creation: Dolly and the Age of Biological Control. New York: Farrar, Straus, and Giroux, 2000.

The three Scottish researchers who managed to clone Dolly in 1996 from a cell of an adult sheep explain their hypotheses and experiments, their conclusions, and consider the implications of their pioneering research. For example, they see possibilities in genetically modified organs that could safely be transplanted into humans, and in genetically engineered sheep that could be used in genetic defect research and in cell-based therapies for human ailments. They also consider the ethical issues raised by their research, and examine the need to reconcile these ethical issues with the enormous possibilities for alleviation of human suffering raised by their research. An extensive glossary and index are included.

Medical and Ethical Issues in Animal Research, Euthanasia, Genetic Engineering, Physician-Assisted Suicide, the Right-to-Die Movement, Terminal Illness, and Vaccine Research on Human Subjects: A Selected, Annotated Bibliography

Alecson, Deborah G. Lost Lullaby. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press, 1995.

This is the story of Andrea, a baby born with irreversible brain damage, told in her mother’s voice. Andrea’s parents viewed her as already dying and did not want medical technology to keep her alive. This book describes their fight to obtain power over their child’s destiny in the face of opposition from hospital personnel complying with the law and with their hospital’s policies.

Dyck, Arthur J. Life’s Worth: The Case against Assisted Suicide. Grand Rapids, MI: William B. Eerdmans Publishing Company, 2002.

The author, a Harvard ethicist, argues for the inherent worth of human life. He notes that physician- assisted suicide (PAS) and euthanasia deny terminally ill patients any possibility of recovery. He also discusses comfort-only care and analyzes how that differs morally from PAS and euthanasia.

Genetic Engineering: A Documentary History. Edited by Thomas A. Shannon. Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1999.

This title covers a wide range of topics in the debate on genetic engineering. These include animal applications, agriculture, the human genome, issues in research, diagnostic applications of genetic information, and cloning. It also includes a short list of Significant Dates in the History of Genetics, bibliography, and index.

Grady, Christine. The Search for an AIDS Vaccine: Ethical Issues in the Development and Testing of a Preventive HIV Vaccine. Indianapolis, IN: Indiana University Press, 1995.

The creation of a vaccine seems the best hope for controlling Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) but the ethics of human-subject research toward such a vaccine are very controversial. Ms. Grady, an R.N. and holder of a Ph.D., examines the guidelines, regulations, and attitudes about human-subjects research. She also proposes a model for ethical conduct of vaccine research in general and HIV vaccine research in particular. The book contains a glossary, seven pages of notes, 22 pages of references, and an index.

The Human Genome Project and the Future of Health Care. Edited by Thomas H. Murray, Mark A. Rothstein, and Robert F. Murray, Jr. Indianapolis, IN: Indiana University Press, 1996.

The Human Genome Project has far reaching implications for American health care. Gene mapping offers the possibility of new treatments for illness. Will insurance cover the costs of potentially expensive, experimental treatments? Will such treatments be available to the poor, or to Medicare or Medicaid recipients? Will genetic predictions of possible future illnesses lead to loss of employment or denial of insurance coverage? Those are just a few of the questions discussed in this book’s twelve essays.

"It Just Ain’t Fair": The Ethics of Health Care for African Americans. Edited by Annette Dula and Sara Goering. Westport, CT: Praeger Publishers, 1994.

The editors look at the gross inequities in health care available to African-Americans in particular and to poor people in general. Topics for the essays include "Ethical Responsibilities and the Medical Profession," and "A Practical Ethics for Reform: Community Empowerment." Each essay is followed by a commentary by a well-known medical ethicist. Also included are a lengthy bibliography and an index.

Kevorkian, Dr. Jack. Prescription: Medicide: the Goodness of a Planned Death. Buffalo, NY: Prometheus Books, 1991.

Medicide is the term Dr. Kevorkian uses to describe physician-assisted suicide. He is the inventor of the "suicide machine." In this book he takes on those who "…actively resist a rational and comprehensive program of dignified, humane, and beneficial planned death."

Lurquin, Paul F. High Tech Harvest: Understanding Genetically Modified Food Plants. Boulder, CO: Westview Press, 2002.

Should consumers be concerned about genetically engineered plant products on grocery store shelves? Are biotechnology companies telling the truth when they say genetically engineered corn and canola are safe? The author’s goal is to provide an understanding of the basic science of genetic engineering so that people can make informed decisions about genetically modified foods. A glossary, chapter references, and an index are included.

Peck, M. Scott. Denial of the Soul: Spiritual and Medical Perspectives on Euthanasia and Mortality. New York: Harmony Books, 1997.

The author discusses the issues of death, suicide and euthanasia from his experience as a physician, psychiatrist, and theologian. Among the questions he asks are: "How does taking a life differ from allowing death?" "Whose consent is required?" "How great must the physical or emotional pain be for euthanasia to be considered?"

Pence, Gregory E. Re-Creating Medicine: Ethical Issues at the Frontiers of Medicine. New York: Rowman & Littlefield Publishers, Inc., 2000.

Pence was "one of the few bioethicists in North America to publicly oppose President Clinton’s ban on human cloning." In this book he argues that outmoded and stale bioethics need to be re-created so that science can prevail and medical progress is not stymied.

Physician-Assisted Suicide. Edited by Daniel A. Leone. San Diego, CA: Greenhaven Press, 1998.

This book is part of the Opposing Viewpoints Series. In short essays the various writers ask whether Physician-Assisted Suicide (PAS) is moral or immoral? Should it be legalized or not? Is it a constitutional right or not? Does PAS harm society or not? The book also contains a section of Organizations to Contact, a bibliography, and an index.

Rothman, Juliet C. Saying Goodbye to Daniel: When Death Is the Best Choice. New York, NY: Continuum, 1995.

Daniel became a quadriplegic at the age of twenty-one after a diving accident. Critical care kept him alive even as his condition continued to worsen. His mother, Juliet Rothman, tells the story of how the family supported Daniel in his choice to remove the ventilator and to be allowed to die with dignity.

Rudacille, Deborah. The Scalpel and the Butterfly: the War Between Animal Research and Animal Protection. New York: Farrar, Straus and Giroux, 2000.

The author presents a history of the fierce debate between animal researchers and animal protectionists, beginning with Mary Shelley’s Frankenstein. In so doing, Rudacille shares with readers the ethical complexity of the debate. Included are forty pages of notes, twelve of references, organizational resources, and index.

Schuklenk, Udo. Access to Experimental Drugs in Terminal Illness: Ethical Issues. New York: Pharmaceutical Products Press, 1998.

Should terminally ill patients be denied access to experimental but potentially life saving drugs? Should they be pressured instead to join clinical trials where they may receive only a placebo? In light of the HIV/AIDS pandemic, should the drug testing and approval process be re-examined? Those are addressed in Schuklenk’s book. Extensive notes and bibliography are also included.

Woodman, Sue. Last Rights: The Struggle over the Right to Die. New York: Plenum Publishing Corporation, 1998.

Woodman examines the people and organizations supporting the right-to-die movement and those opposing it. She also offers personal testimonies, pro and con. Ultimately, however, she notes that, "It is so easy to undervalue the quality of a sick person’s existence. Yet for those of us whose days on earth are increasingly finite, the line that defines what makes life worthwhile is written in the sand."

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Frankenstein Films

The Bride. Columbia Tristar Home Entertainment, (1985) 2001. Rated PG-13. 119 min.

Jennifer Beals, Sting, Anthony Higgins, Clancy Brown, David Rappaport, Geraldine Page. Videodisc release of 1985 motion picture. Dr. Frankenstein builds the perfect woman and lives to regret it, as Frankenstein’s creations look for their place in the world.

The Bride of Frankenstein. Universal, (1935) 1999. Not rated. 75 min.

Boris Karloff, Colin Clive, Valerie Hobson, Elsa Lanchester, Ernest Thesiger, Dwight Frye, O.P. Heggie, Una O’Connor. Videodisc release of 1935 motion picture. Baron Frankenstein is blackmailed by Dr. Praetorious into reviving his monster and building a mate for it.

Bud Abbott & Lou Costello meet Frankenstein. Universal, (1948), 2000. Not rated. 83 min.

Bud Abbott, Lou Costello, Lon Chaney, Bela Lugosi, Glenn Strange, Lenore Aubert, Jane Randolph, Frank Ferguson, Charles Bradstreet. Videodisc release of the 1948 motion picture. A comic horror film in which Abott and Costello encounter Frankenstein’s monster, Dracula, and a mad scientist.

The Evil of Frankenstein. Universal. (1964) 1995. Not rated. 87 min.

Peter Cushing, Peter Woodthorpe, Duncan Lamont. Baron von Frankenstein attempts to resurrect his original monster with the help of Zoltan, a mystical hypnotist.

Frankenstein. Universal (1931) 1999. Not rated. 71 min.

Boris Karloff, Colin Clive, Mae Clarke, John Boles, Edward van Sloan, Frederick Kerr, Dwight Frye, Lionel Belmore, Marilyn Harris. Dr. Frankenstein dares to tamper with life and death by creating a human monster in his laboratory but his dreams of perfection are thwarted when the monster becomes an uncontrollable beast.

Frankenstein Meets the Wolf Man. MCA Universal Home Video, (1942) 1992. Not rated. 73 min.

Lon Chaney Jr., Bela Lugosi, Patric Knowles, Maria Ouspenskaya, Lionel Atwill, Ilona Massey. The Wolf Man meets Frankenstein’s monster in a snarling, moaning free-for-all which ends in a watery grave for both.

Frankenstein Must Be Destroyed. Warner Home Video. (1970) 1998. Rated PG. 103 min.

Peter Cushing, Veronica Carlson, Freddie Jones, Simon Ward, Thorley Walters, Maxine Audley. Videocassette release of the 1970 motion picture. Frankenstein wields his scalpel on the cutting edge of medical research, experimenting with brain transplants. Alas, the procedure is imperfect. And a new pitiable terror now stalks an unsuspecting world.

Frankenstein Unbound. CBS Fox Video, (1990) 1991. Rated R. 86 min.

John Hurt, Raul Julia, Bridget Fonda, Jason Patric, Michael Hutchence, Nick Bramble. Based on the novel "Frankenstein Unbound" by Brian W. Aldiss. A brilliant scientist experimenting in the year 2031 finds himself thrust into 19th century Geneva, where he meets Dr. Frankenstein.

Frankenweenie. Walt Disney Home Video, 1992. Rated PG. 27 min.

Shelley Duvall, Daniel Stern, Barret Oliver. Based on an original idea by Tim Burton. Sparky, an ordinary family dog, becomes Frankenweenie through an extraordinary set of circumstances. He and the Frankenstein family share an exciting yet bizarre adventure.

The Ghost of Frankenstein. MCA Universal Home Video, (1942) 1993. Not rated. 68 min.

Sir Cedric Hardwicke, Ralph Bellamy, Lionel Atwill, Bela Lugosi, Evelyn Ankers, Lon Chaney Jr. When Ygor brings the monster to Frankenstein’s country castle, the doctor decides that a brain transplant might be in order. While Frankenstein thinks the transplant should be of a healthy and sane brain, Ygor plots with Frankenstein’s unscrupulous colleague Dr. Bohmer to transplant Ygor’s brain instead, so that he can rule the world using the monster’s body. Their plan turns sour when the monster becomes malevolent and goes on a rampage in the nearest town.

Gods and Monsters. Universal, (1998) 1999. Rated R. 106 min.

Ian McKellen, Brendan Fraser, Lynn Redgrave. Based on the novel Father of Frankenstein by Christopher Bram. National Board of Review: Best picture, Best Actor; Los Angeles Film Critics: Best actor; Golden Globe Award: Best actress; Independent spirit awards: Best feature, Best male lead, Best female supporting actor; Academy Award: Best screenplay adaptation. It’s 1957, and Hollywood horror director James Whale’s heyday as the director of "Frankenstein," "Bride of Frankenstein," and "The Invisible Man" is long behind him. Retired and a semi-recluse, he lives his days accompanied only by images from his past. When his dour housekeeper Hannah hires a handsome young gardener Clayton Boone, the gay director and the simple yardman develop an unlikely friendship.

House of Frankenstein. MCA Universal Home Video, (1944) 1992. Not rated. 71 min.

Boris Karloff, Lon Chaney Jr. Based on: The Devil’s Blood by Carl Siodmak. A deranged scientist escapes from prison and revives Count Dracula, the Frankenstein monster and the Wolfman in order to kill those responsible for his imprisonment.

Mary Shelley’s Frankenstein. Columbia TriStar Home Video. (1994) 1995. 123 min.

Kenneth Branagh, Robert De Niro, Helena Bonham Carter. Adaptation of the classic horror story in which the doctor creates life. The creature he assembles from the bodies of convicts and the brain of a brilliant scientist soon realizes that he will be rejected by society and goes on a rampage seeking revenge on the doctor who gave him life. [Considered one of the best adaptations of the book]

Rocky Horror Picture Show. Twentieth Century Fox (1975), 2000. Rated R. 100 min.

Tim Curry, Susan Sarandon, Barry Bostwick, Richard O'Brien, Jonathan Adams, Meatloaf, Nell Campbell, Charles Gray, Patricia Quinn, Peter Hinwood. A mixture of fantastical rock opera and horror movie spoof. A couple of ordinary kids have car trouble one dark and rainy night and knock on the door of a looming Gothic mansion. They are stunned to learn that they have stumbled into an ongoing convention of kinky characters, hosted by Dr. Fran-N-Furter, a mad scientist.

Shyness. Bullfrog Films. (1996), 1997. Grades 3 to adult. 10 min. [PPV]

Using the familiar Frankenstein legend, this animated short film illustrated what shyness is and how it can be overcome.

Son of Frankenstein. MCA Universal Home Video, (1939) 1992. Not rated. 99 min.

Basil Rathbone, Boris Karloff, Bela Lugosi, Lionel Atwill, Josephine Hutchinson, Donnie Dunagan, The son of Dr. Frankenstein returns to his ancestral castle some 25 years after the infamous monster’s "death." There he meets Ygor, a mad shepherd who is hiding the lifeless body of the creature. At Ygor’s urging, the young Dr. Frankenstein revives his father’s creation in the hope of rehabilitating him and clearing the family name. But once the creature is awakened, Ygor sends him on a killing spree that spreads new panic through the town.

Toonsylvania. DreamWorks Home Entertainment. 1999. Not rated. 82 min.

Based on the Fox Family TV show of the same name. This animated comedy follows the misadventures of Igor, a 3-foot hunchback, his egomaniacal boss, Dr. Frankenstein, and a nearly brainless monster.

The True Story of Frankenstein. A&E Home Video, (1994) 1995. 100 min. [PPV]

A behind-the-scenes look at the film history of Mary Shelley’s classic monster. Film clips of the Frankenstein movies are interspersed with interviews with Robert De Niro, Kenneth Branagh, Francis Ford Coppola, Peter Bogdanovich, Helena Bonham Carter and others associated with Shelley’s tale. Narrator, Eli Wallach; host, Roger Moore. Program originally titled "It’s alive: the true story of Frankenstein."

Wishbone in Mary Shelley’s Frankenstein. Lyric Studios, 1998. 30 min.

David’s science fair project robot wanders unleashed, while another science experiment also goes haywire as a dead man is brought back to life.

Young Frankenstein. 20th Century Fox Home Entertainment, 1998, c1974. Rated PG. 106 min.

Gene Wilder, Peter Boyle, Marty Feldman, Cloris Leachman, Teri Garr, Kenneth Mars, Madeline Kahn, Gene Hackman. Videodisc release of 1974 motion picture. Frankenstein, a successful surgeon is trying to live down his grandfather’s reputation, visits the family castle in Transylvania. After puttering around in the laboratory, he and his assistants create a good-hearted by misunderstood monster.

16mm Films

Famous Movie Monsters 45 min. B&W

Frankenstein Saga 45 min. B&W

Mad, Mad, Monsters 44 min. 1989

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Websites of interest for the National Traveling Exhibition, Frankenstein: Penetrating the Secrets of Nature
The Exhibit | Mary Shelley and Frankenstein | Curriculum Materials | Miscellaneous | Medical and Ethical Issues

The Exhibit

National Library of Medicine web site for the original "Frankenstein: Penetrating the Secrets of Nature" exhibition in 1997-1998.

Don't miss the Exhibit at St. Louis Public Library Nov. 12 - Jan. 9.

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About Mary Shelley and Frankenstein

Mary Wollstonecraft Shelley

Provides information on Mary Wollstonecraft Shelley, especially material that might not be readily available or accessible in every library; and offers a chronology of Mary Shelley’s life and work and 19th-century reviews of her novels and of the plays inspired by Frankenstein.

Features resources for studying Mary Shelley’s Frankenstein and Mary Shelley herself, including works by William Godwin, Mary Wollstonecraft, Percy Bysshe Shelley, and others.

University of Virginia Library

Features the complete text of Frankenstein; or, The Modern Prometheus by Mary Shelley

Full script of the play, "Presumption; or, The Fate of Frankenstein," which in 1823 had already removed characters from the book and portrayed the monster as a speechless murderer.

Features the many literary works and authors referred to in Frankenstein, where they appear in text, and information about them.

This site illustrates "Frankenstein: Mary Shelley’s Dream," a permanent exhibit of The Bakken Library and Museum in Minneapolis, MN. Interesting visuals of 18th century laboratory apparatus. Suitable for middle grades and up.

Romantic Circles is a large-scale, collaborative site of high editorial quality devoted to the study of Lord Byron, Mary Wollstonecraft Shelley, Percy Bysshe Shelley, John Keats, their contemporaries and historical contexts.

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Curriculum Materials for Schools

Frankenstein for Grades 9-12: In-depth study of the book and issues it raises. Activities include a mock trial in which the monster sues his creator, discussion questions, related reading, web links.

Grades K-8: Site of the Miami Museum of Science Learning Network with a section on "Frankenstein’s Lightning Laboratory," where simple experiments describe different forms of electricity –"fruity" and "static"—as well as teach electrical safety.

Grades 10-12: "Tales of the Supernatural" focuses on horror and the Gothic form in the 18th and early 19th centuries. Students read and discuss Mary Shelley’s Frankenstein as part of the curriculum unit, as well as works of Nathaniel Hawthorne. Lesson can be extended to modern-day tales of the supernatural.

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Miscellaneous Related Sites

Picture stills from the Edison Films 1910 Frankenstein film.

Illustrates and reviews the Marvel comic series, "The Frankenstein Monster," which ran from January 1973 to September 1975.

Web site for Donald F. Glut, speaker for the Opening Reception of the Exhibit on November 17, at 7pm at Central Library.

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Medical and Ethical Issues in Cloning, Reproductive Technology, and Organ Transplantation: Selected Web Sites of Interest

Georgetown University. National Information Resource on Ethics & Human Genetics.

This site provides information on topics related to ethics and human genetics. Included are annotated bibliographies on genetics topics, a list of genetics organizations, a links section, and the opportunity to generate a "Quick Bib" on a genetics topic of the user's choice.

Howard Hughes Medical Institute. Biomedical Research & Science Education.

This is the official site of the Howard Hughes Medical Institute (HHMI). It includes a "Research News Archive," a "Postgraduate Education Support" section, an article on Virtual Laboratories produced by the HHMI, and a section called "For Young Scientists," that includes information on becoming a scientist, science projects for children K-4, and an "Ask the Scientist" section.

Lifenet, Inc. Lifenet, an Organ Procurement Organization and Tissue Bank.

Lifenet seeks to improve the quality of human life through the provision of organs and tissue for transplantation, and by providing educational and support services for organ and tissue donors and recipients.

National Library of Medicine. Gateway: Your Entrance to the Knowledge Resources of the National Library of Medicine.

The NLM Gateway allows users to search in the following NLM databases: MEDLINE; OLDMEDLINE; LOCATORplus; MEDLINEplus;; DIRLINE; Meeting Abstracts; and HSRProj. An "Overview" offers an overview of the search process.

Organ Procurement and Transplantation Network

The Organ Procurement and Transplantation Network maintains the only national patient waiting list, and features the most comprehensive data available in any single field of medicine in a "Data Resources" section.

University of Michigan Health System. Genetics: the Symphony of Life.

Provides research being done by University of Michigan Medical School researchers into diseases that appear to be potentially curable or preventable through genetics research. Includes sections on "Conditions & Diseases" and a "Glossary of Terms."

U.S. Department of Energy. Human Genome Project. Genomics and Its Impact on Science and Society: a 2003 Primer.

Provides information about the Human Genome Project, including an historical overview of the Project and sections on "Medicine and the New Genetics," "Other Anticipated Benefits of Genetic Research," "Societal Concerns Arising from the New Genetics," and a "Dictionary of Genetic Terms."

U. S. Department of Health & Human Services. Organ and Tissue Donation and Transplantation.

The site used by the Department of Health and Human Services to promote organ, tissue, and blood donation. Includes articles on the subject, an FAQ section, lists of related organizations and web sites, a glossary, and downloadable donor logo, cards, and brochures.

U. S. Department of Health & Human Services. The President's Council on Bioethics.

The official site of the group that advises the President on ethical issues related to advances in biomedical science and technology. Includes sections on "Cloning," "Stem Cells," "Patenting Human Life," "Biotechnology and Public Policy," "Bioethics in Literature," and "Beyond Therapy (Enhancement)." Each section is divided into these subsections: Reports; FAQs; Transcripts; and Working Papers (full-text of documents cited is available with a click).

Medical and Ethical Issues in Bioethics, Genetic Engineering, Neonatal Care, Terminal Illness, Euthanasia, and Assisted-Suicide: Selected Web Sites of Interest

American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS). Dialogue on Science, Ethics, And Religion. 2002.

This site, part of the AAAS homepage, offers projects (Genetic Patenting Dialogue, Genetic Discrimination Working Group), events, history, current issues (stem cells), perspectives (also on stem cells), and resources on the relationship between science, ethics, and religion. Each section contains links to printable articles. A few links lead to materials to be purchased.

International Task Force on Euthanasia and Assisted Suicide (ITFEAS).

ITFEAS is a non-profit 501(c)(3) educational and research organization that "…addresses end-of-life issues from a public policy perspective." The site is funded by private donations, grants, and the sale of books and materials. It links to news and court case information. A thoroughly footnoted Frequently Asked Questions (FAQs), site index, and site search engine are included.

National Institutes of Health (NIH). National Human Genome Research Institute (NHGRI).

"NHGRI led the Human Genome Project for the NIH, which culminated in the completion of the full human genome sequence in April 2003." They plan to continue genomic research to improve human health and fight disease. The site defines genomic research and describes some of NHGRI’s current projects. It answers questions about genetics, genetic disorders, policy and ethics; i.e., should the products of genetic information be patented? How reliable is genetic information (DNA) as evidence in court cases? There is also a current Newsroom and a News Release Archive going back to 1994.

World Health Organization. Ethics and Health at WHO.

Health Ethics has been a focus of the Director-General’s Office and throughout the WHO organization as well. The Research Ethics section discusses "Ethical Standards and Procedures for Research with Human Beings" that includes Guidelines for such research from WHO and related organizations. The Links portion lists "Useful Links to Bioethics Resources on the Web" that includes United Nations, International, Regional, and National Organizations. Also included are Related Health Topics; i.e., Ethics, Genomics, Biomedical Technology, and Health and Human Rights.

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