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BULLET St. Louis City Ordinance 69423

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Official printed copies of St. Louis City Ordinances may be obtained from the Register's Office at the St. Louis City Hall.


BOARD BILL NO. [12] 283

INTRODUCED BY ALDERMAN LYDA KREWSON, TERRY KENNEDY, FRANK WILLIAMSON, JOSEPH D. RODDY

An ordinance pertaining to the Central West End Historic District; amending Ordinance #56768, approved June 19, 1974 and having as its subject matter the boundary and regulations and standards for the Central West End Historic District, and providing new standards for the Central West End Historic District.

Be it ordained by the City of St. Louis as follows:

SECTION TWO, Ordinance 56768, approved June 19, 1974 is hereby repealed and replaced with:

SECTION TWO

The proposed standards to be applied within the district including, but not limited to demolition, facades, setbacks, height, scale, materials, color and texture, for all structures and the design details of all fences, streets and drives, street furniture, signs and landscape materials are set out in the "Central West End Historic District Standards" recommended by the Preservation Board on December 17, 2012 and the Planning Commission on January 9, 2013, and which are adopted and incorporated herein by reference, and copies of which shall be filed for inspection in the Office of the Register and in the Office of the Building Commissioner.

Central West End Historic District Standards

I. INTRODUCTION 1
II. DEFINITIONS 2
III. RESIDENTIAL AND INSTITUTIONAL DESIGN STANDARDS 7

Alterations to Existing Structures: Repairs and Rehabilitation to Historic Residential and Institutional Buildings 7

A. Materials 7
B. Architectural Elements 8

Site Work 13

A. Walls, Fences and Enclosures 13
B. Landscaping 13
C. Paving and Ground Cover Materials 14
D. Exterior Furnishings, Lighting and Utilities 14
E. Mechanical Equipment 14
F. Signs 15
G. Curb Cuts and Driveways 15

New Construction or Additions to Existing Residential or Institutional Buildings: 16

A. Height, Scale and Mass 16
B. Location 16
C. Exterior Materials 17
D. Fenestration 17
E. Decks 17
F. Accessory Buildings 17
G. Curb Cuts and Driveways 18
H. Coordination with Form Based Zoning 18

IV. COMMERCIAL BUILDING DESIGN STANDARDS 19

Repairs and Rehabilitation to Historic Commercial Buildings 19

A. Materials 19
B. Architectural Elements 20

Site Work 26

A. Walls, Fences and Enclosures 26
B. Parking 26
C. Landscaping 26
D. Paving and Ground Cover Materials 26
E. Exterior Furnishings, Lighting and Utilities 27
F. Mechanical Equipment 27
G. Signs 27
H. Curb Cuts and Driveways 28

New Construction or Alterations to Existing Commercial Structures: 29

A. Height 29
B. Location 29
C. Exterior Materials 30
E. Accessory Buildings 30
F. Curb Cuts and Driveways 30
G. Coordination with Form Based Zoning 30

V. Demolition 31

VI. Appendices 32

I. INTRODUCTION

The primary objective of the Central West End Historic District is to maintain the distinctive character, quality of construction and individual architectural integrity of structures within the historic district. In pursuit of this objective, these standards embrace as their fundamental or underlying guiding principle the concept that original or historically significant materials and architectural features of the buildings within the historic district shall be maintained and repaired whenever possible rather than replaced. While there is neither one prevalent architectural style nor a dominant building material, there is a sense of scale, richness of detail and quality of construction that creates an overall image within this historic district. Historic architectural features and materials shall be retained. Where severe deterioration requires replacement, the new shall match the old in design, color, texture and other visual qualities. A Cultural Resources Office permit is required for any exterior change to a property even though that work may not require a Building Permit. No permit is needed for the installation of art.
Each structure shall be recognized as a physical record of its time and place. Alterations that have acquired architectural significance over time shall be retained. Alterations and new construction which create a false sense of historical development, such as adding conjectural features or inappropriate decorative elements, shall not be undertaken. Further, new construction shall be differentiated from the old, but shall be compatible in size, scale, setback, and proportion to existing, adjacent structures.

Some block faces within the historic district exhibit a continuity of design with uniform building heights, setbacks, materials, window sizes, spacing and landscape treatment. These elements help to create an unusually strong "streetscape" which must receive special attention during the design review process. When new construction is proposed, consideration of the "streetscape" and compatible relationships between the new structures and existing ones are of utmost importance.

Developers and others, therefore, shall demonstrate compliance with existing scale, size, setback, and proportion by providing, along with other construction documents, photographs, a street elevation and plan of the proposed project showing adjacent properties. Visual compliance shall be judged on massing and detail in addition to size and scale.

It is not the intention of these regulations to discourage contemporary design that, through careful attention to scale, materials, siting and landscaping, is harmonious with the existing historic structure. The historic character of the historic district is not enhanced by new construction that attempts to mimic the historic.

These revised historic district standards for commercial properties and other places of public accommodation integrates accessibility provisions for people with disabilities and encourage the provision of accessibility for private residences. The standards seek to increase the instances where accessibility is possible, and recognize that accessibility can be accomplished without compromising the historic integrity of historic buildings and the neighborhood. These standards shall not be used to claim exemption from accessibility requirements mandated by city, state or federal law. Similarly, these historic district standards shall be met when changes are proposed for accessibility. Both goals of retaining historic integrity and accessibility for people with disabilities can be met through the use of sophisticated design solutions.

These standards address common situations and are not intended to address every eventuality that may occur. The interpretation of these standards shall recognize that due to the physical nature of a property, the historic arrangement of buildings on a property, the historic use, a proposed new use, and other factors, instances could arise in which the literal interpretation of one or more components of these standards would result in a hardship for a property owner. In these instances, the intent of the ordinance that designated the historic district and these standards shall guide decision making.

The following are specific standards to govern the use of structures and to establish criteria by which alterations to existing structures-as well as new construction-can be reviewed for compliance with these standards. Some of the guidelines are precise, whereas others are necessarily more general, allowing a range of alternative solutions which are compatible with the existing context. In order for these standards to be of optimal value for the developer, architect and client, or individual property owner, they should be studied thoroughly before design work begins or contracts are signed for construction materials or services. Questions should be directed to the Cultural Resources Office.

II. DEFINITIONS

Accessible Route: A continuous unobstructed path.

Accessory Structure: A subordinate building, the use of which is incidental to that of the primary structure on a site, including a garage, carriage house, greenhouse, playhouse, etc.

Appendage: A set of steps, stoop, porch, or deck attached or immediately adjacent to the primary building.

Art: A feature with primarily artistic qualities, and is not a building element, such as a sculpture. An artistically-designed bench shall be categorized by its function.

Awning: A light weight exterior roof-like shade that projects over a window or door.

Balustrade: A series of short posts, or balusters, and the handrail they support.

Block face: The collective street front, consisting of the principle elevations of buildings that face the street within a block; a block face typically exhibits overall characteristics provided by the scale, massing, and spacing of the buildings and their principal materials.

Brick mold: A trim piece covering the joint between a masonry wall and a window frame.

Canopy: A protective roof-like covering mounted on a metal framework over a walkway or adjacent to a door.

Capital: The decorative head or crowning feature of a column or post.

Carriage House: A building originally used to protect carriages and horses, and often containing living quarters. Typically it is a two-story structure located at the rear of the building lot adjacent to an alley.

Cast Iron: An historic building material. A method of manufacturing certain historic iron building elements where molten iron alloy is poured into molds and then machined.

Caulking: A flexible sealant material used to close joints between materials; includes tar and oakum, lead, putty, and modern elastomeric compounds such as silicone and polyurethane.

Column: A vertical element that supports part of a building or structure.

Communication Devices: Equipment used to send, receive or process any form of communication. This can include, but is not limited to, antennae, cables, wires, dishes, or mounting apparatus.

Corner Lot: A lot abutting on two streets at their intersection.

Cornice: The decorative portion of a building where an exterior wall meets the roof. In addition to being decorative, the cornice often camouflages the gutter and visually supports the roof overhang. In the Central West End, cornices are made of a variety of materials and designs, incorporating brackets, dentil moldings, and ogee moldings. Cornices are typically constructed of brick, built-up pieces of wood, sheet metal, or combinations of all three materials. As used herein, cornices include crown moldings.

Crown Molding: A horizontal molding at the top of any feature that angles away from the vertical surface.

Deck: A floor that is exposed to the elements.

Dentil: A small square tooth-like block, used in a series or row as decoration on a Classical cornice.

Dormer: A structure projecting from a sloping roof or mansard, usually containing a window.

Eave: The projection of a roof beyond the wall below.

Entasis: A slight curving of the outline of the shaft of a column so that it is wider in the middle. This corrects an optical illusion that causes perfectly straight sides to appear concave.

Façade: An exterior wall of a building. The street, or front, façade is the building wall that faces the street.

Fascia: A flat, horizontal band or member between moldings, especially in a cornice.

Fenestration: The design and placement of windows in a building.

Flat Roof: Roofs that are essentially flat, typically having a slope of ¼ inch per foot to ½ inch per foot and usually waterproofed with a built-up roof.

Gable End: The triangular upper portion of a wall at the end of a pitched roof.

Glazing Compound: Any type of sealant, such as putty, used at the edges of a pane of glass to prevent leakage of air or water.

High-rise Building: A building with occupied floors located more than 75 feet above the lowest level of fire department vehicle access.

Highly Visible: Seen in entirety and not at an oblique angle that diminishes appreciably the perception of the width of the feature.

Institutional Building: Any building originally designed for use by a religious, educational, fraternal, social, or medical organization for other than for-profit business purposes.

Low- and Mid-rise Building: A building with a mean roof height of 75 feet, or less.

Masonry: A family of building techniques that uses stone, brick, or concrete block units, usually joined by mortar, to form walls and other parts of a building.

Mansard: A roof having a double slope on all four sides with the lower slope, which frequently incorporates dormer windows, being almost vertical and the upper slope almost horizontal.

Mechanical Equipment: HVAC units, solar panels, satellite dishes, antennae, electrical or gas meters, conduit, cell towers, etc.

Mullion: A vertical post or other upright that separates two or more units of sash placed in a single opening.

Muntin: A strip of wood or metal that separates and holds in place the glass panes of a window sash or door.

Parapet: Those portions of the walls of a building that project above the roof, other than the chimney.

Parcel: A contiguous land area which is considered as a unit, is subject to a single ownership, and is legally recorded as a single piece.

Pediment: A decorative gable placed above a facade, porch, window or door, often used in Classic Revival architecture.

Pilaster: A shallow pier or rectangular column that projects slightly from a wall.

Porch: A covered and floored area of a building, especially a house, that is open at the front and, usually, the sides; typically partially enclosed with columns and railings.

Primary Structure: A structure considered to be the main building on the property.

Repointing: The process of repairing mortar joints in a masonry wall, wherein existing mortar is removed to a prescribed depth back from the face of the masonry, after which new mortar is pressed into the joints and properly tooled.

Retaining Wall: A wall that holds back the earth behind it and used to make changes in grade.

Sash: The portion of a window that holds the glass; its character is derived from its material; the dimensions of all its components; its operation (as in being double-hung, casement, awning or other type); and its configuration (as in divided by muntins into lights).

Siding: The finish covering of an exterior wall of a building.

Site: A parcel or parcels of land bounded by a property line or a designated portion of a public right-of-way on which a building or other feature is located.

Special Window: A window with sash that is highly ornate, unusual, or particularly fine in detail that is a major factor in the historic character of the building.

Standard Window: A window with sash that is typical for the time and style of the building and does not have any unusual qualities.

Stoop: A small porch, platform, or staircase leading to the entrance of a house or building.

Storefront: The front of a store or shop at street level, usually having one or more windows for the display of goods or wares.

Storm Door: An outer door, historically made of wood, which protect the vestibule or the primary door.

Street Furniture: A piece of equipment, such as a streetlight or bench, but excluding art, placed near the street for the benefit of the public.

Streetscape: The assemblage of components that establish the character of the public circulation area, including the street, sidewalks, building line (setback), street furnishings and lighting, landscaping in front of buildings, and block faces.

Stucco: Plaster or plaster-like material used for surfacing the exterior walls of a building.

Tooth-In: A masonry technique used to form a new opening or to close up an existing opening in a masonry wall. In the case of a new opening in a brick wall, the edges of the new opening are first notched beyond the actual width dimensions of the opening. This notching allows for the insertion of half bricks aligning with the ends of the full bricks. The result is an opening jamb that is smooth, neatly aligned, and has the hard surface of the bricks properly exposed at the jamb edges. The reverse process is used to brick in an opening in an attempt to blend the new bricks with those already existing.

Transom: The window over the top of a door, either fixed or operable.

True Divided Light Window: A window sash in a window or door that is composed of several small panes held in place by muntins.

Veranda: A roofed space attached to the exterior wall of a house, typically with columns, pillars or posts supporting the roof and of a size to be considered an outdoor sitting room.

Visible: For the purposes of these standards, can be seen when viewed from six feet or less above street grade from the street or sidewalk. Landscaping is not permanent and shall not be considered when determining visibility. Fences and free-standing walls are considered permanent, and objects hidden by them shall not be considered visible.

Water Table: A molding or band that projects from an exterior wall and is intended to divert rainwater from the face of the wall surface below.

Wrought Iron: An historic building material. A method of manufacturing iron building elements in which iron is heated in a forge and shaped while soft, either by bending or hammering. Fences and gates often incorporate wrought iron elements.

Weatherstripping: A narrow, compressible band of material used between the edge of a door or window and the jambs, sill, and head to seal against air and water infiltration. Materials include felt, spring metal, plastic foam, and wood edged with rubber; types include interlocking and friction.

Wythe: A term used in masonry construction to describe the thickness of a wall. A two-wythe brick wall is one that is two bricks thick. Most brick walls in historic residential structures are three-wythes thick.

III. RESIDENTIAL AND INSTITUTIONAL DESIGN STANDARDS

Alterations to Existing Structures:

Repairs and Rehabilitation to Historic Residential and Institutional Buildings

On historic residential and institutional buildings, original architectural elements and decorative details, windows, brackets, friezes, balconies, shutters, historic glass, etc., provide texture that is an important feature of the historic district. In an effort to retain this texture, substitution of historic materials is discouraged. Wherever possible, elements should be repaired rather than replaced. The Cultural Resources Office should be contacted for professional advice. The addition or removal of decorative elements, e.g., window pediments, bracketed hoods over doors, door surrounds, etc., normally is prohibited unless addition or replacement would return the building to its original design. Proposed exceptions shall be subject to review for design suitability and approval by the Cultural Resources Office staff.

A. Materials

Original or historically significant materials shall be maintained and repaired rather than replaced. Where repair is not possible, materials should be replaced in-kind, i.e., new materials should match the existing in type, size, shape, profile, and material. For example, if a wood porch balustrade cannot be repaired it should be replaced with a new balustrade of the same design and material. Use of imitative materials on historic buildings is generally discouraged, especially when visible from the street, and will be evaluated on a case-by-case basis.

1) Masonry - Bricks and Mortar; Stone

Repair and replace damaged bricks and mortar with bricks and mortar to match the existing. Repair damaged stone with stone to match the existing. Care should be taken to repoint historic masonry with mortar that matches the existing in color, texture, strength and composition. Using an inappropriate mortar mix with a higher concentration of Portland cement can cause damage to historic bricks and stone. Mortar joints should also match the existing (original) joint profile, i.e., concave tooled joint, v-shaped joint, flush joint, etc. Information on appropriate mortar mixes is available online from the National Park Service's Preservation Brief #2 (Appendix 2).

Previously unpainted brick or stone shall not be painted. Where masonry has been painted, either in contravention of these standards or prior to their adoption, and paint can be safely removed, this should be done.

Waterproof coatings on historic masonry are not permitted because their application can result in damage to the building. See National Park Service's Preservation Brief #1 (Appendix 1) for more information on this topic.

Sandblasting of masonry, either for cleaning or paint removal, is prohibited. Other cleaning and paint removal techniques require a permit and shall be submitted for review by the Cultural Resources Office.

2) Stucco

Repair existing stucco with stucco that matches the original stucco in strength, color, texture, and composition. Information on an appropriate mix and the correct method of repair for historic stucco can be obtained from the National Park Service's Preservation Brief #22 (Appendix 5). As much original stucco as possible should be retained. New stucco should never be applied over existing stucco. If the original finish or texture is evident, it should be replicated in the new stucco. Masonry that shows no evidence of previous stucco applications shall not have stucco applied to it. In many instances the patina of historic stucco is an important feature and should be left unpainted. Waterproof coatings on historic stucco are not permitted. Prefabricated and panelized materials that resemble stucco (E.I.F.S. for example) shall not be used to replace historic stucco.

Prefabricated cementitious stucco may be used on non-visible facades and new accessory structures. See the National Park Service's Preservation Brief #1 (Appendix 1) for more information on this topic.

3) Siding

Wholesale replacement of original siding is discouraged. When it is necessary to replace deteriorated siding, it should be replaced with siding that matches the materials and appearance of the historic in size, thickness, exposure, and profile of the original. Imitative materials such as vinyl and aluminum siding are not appropriate for historic buildings and their use is not permitted on historic buildings in the historic district. Where inappropriate imitative replacement materials have been used, their removal is encouraged. Cementitious siding is permissible if demonstrated to match the historic material in appearance and when used in an entire replacement or in upper-story areas. Other innovative substitute materials shall be subject to evaluation for appropriateness by the Cultural Resources Office on a case-by-case basis.

4) Paint

Although there is no specific palette of "approved colors," it is recommended that the color of paint used be appropriate to the style of architecture, the character of the adjacent buildings, and the neighborhood.

B. Architectural Elements

Original or historically significant architectural features shall be maintained and repaired rather than replaced. Architectural elements on existing structures shall be maintained in their original size, proportion, detailing and material(s). No historic architectural detail or trim shall be obscured, covered or sheathed with material of any kind. It is understood, however, that historically correct awnings, storm sash or shutters may partially obscure some details when viewed from certain angles. (See paragraph B.5.)

1) Windows

For more information on this subject, see the National Park Service's Preservation Brief #9 (Appendix 3).

The windows in historic buildings in the historic district include two broad categories that shall be considered in different ways:

a) Special Windows. These windows are character-defining features of historic buildings and are usually found on a street-facing façade. They may be quite large, as in a stair hall window. They may have an unusual pattern of divided lights, or muntins, or an unusual configuration of muntins: a fanlight window is an example. Special windows might have leaded glass, colored or "art glass," or curved glass. Due to the importance of these windows in the character of the historic building, and the difficulty in replicating these windows, they shall be preserved through in-kind repair and maintenance. Enhanced thermal efficiency shall be achieved with the use of caulking, glazing compound, weather-stripping and/or interior or exterior storm sash compatible in design and color with the existing fenestration. If Special Windows must be replaced, property owners shall obtain custom-made replicas in order to preserve the character of the windows.

b) Standard Windows. Standard Windows have sash that was typical for the time and style of the building and do not have any unusual qualities. Common 1/1 double-hung windows (two operable sashes with undivided clear glass panes) are Standard Windows, whereas diamond-patterned casement windows are Special Windows. Standard Windows appear on the front façade and other walls of buildings. The location and visibility of these windows determine what is appropriate if and when they are replaced.

The historic character of a building is best maintained through the preservation of original and historic Standard Window sash and trim through maintenance and repair. That approach should be the first choice when windows require attention.

Exterior storm windows are recommended for Standard Windows. Storm sash must fit within the frame of the existing window and match its glass area: e.g., the horizontal division of the storm window must align with the meeting rail of a double-hung window. Raw or unfinished aluminum is not acceptable for storm windows. Historic brickmold and window frames shall not be obscured or sheathed in any way to accommodate storm windows.

If the property owner proposes to replace historic Standard Windows, the replacement components (e.g., brickmold, mullions, sash, muntins, and other window details) shall match the originals in height, width, depth, profile, shape, and geometric pattern. Windows with arched heads shall be replaced with windows with arched heads that reproduce the radius of the original arch. The replacement sash shall replicate, or appear to replicate, the original in operation. Proposed replacement components, i.e., sash and/or trim, shall be evaluated for compliance with these criteria. Manufacturers' standard products can be approved for installation when they replicate historic or original sash, and if they fit the openings. Each window replacement project must identify appropriate sash and trim that meet the criteria.

Standard Windows in Street-facing Façades

1. Windows in all street-facing façades shall be, in order of preference:

a. Existing windows, repaired and retained.

b. Replacement windows, if existing windows are not historic and/or cannot be repaired and kept in use. Replacement windows shall duplicate the original, and meet the requirements for replication of height, width, depth, profile, shape, geometric pattern, and installation. (See paragraph above) Glass size in replacement windows shall be the same as that of the original sash.

2. Replacement windows shall be wood, clad wood, or a composite material.

No existing window opening in a street-facing façade shall be altered in length or width, or be blocked in on the exterior. No new window openings shall be created in a street-facing façade.

Standard Windows in Visible Side Elevations

Replacement windows on highly-visible side elevations shall meet the requirements for windows in street-facing façades. These windows shall be of wood, wood-clad, or aluminum.
Replacement windows seen only at a very oblique angle, or at a distance, where materials and details cannot be perceived from the public areas of the historic district shall maintain the size, configuration and operation of original/historic windows and trim, but may be wood, aluminum, or vinyl.

New openings added where no windows existed before shall be the same proportion as adjacent windows and shall be toothed-in, not saw-cut. Where existing windows are to be made shorter or longer, the width of the opening shall remain the same. Windows may be converted to doors by lengthening the vertical dimension, but not the horizontal one.

Windows to be abandoned shall be filled in with painted shutters, retaining window sills and brickmold; or by brick that matches the adjacent brick to the extent possible and is set back from the plane of the exterior wall by 2 inches. Arches or lintels above the openings shall be retained; sills may be removed.
Standard Windows on Rear Elevations

Replacement windows may be of any material. Window openings may be altered.

Windows in rear façades of corner buildings that are as fully articulated as the side façade shall meet the requirements of

Standard Windows In Visible Side Elevations.

c) General Requirements

Neither leaded nor art glass shall be used as a replacement in windows that were originally or historically clear glass. The use of reflective or tinted window glass (as distinguished from art glass) and glass block is prohibited, unless proven to be the original material.

Security bars or security screens are not permitted on windows above the basement level unless it can be demonstrated through an historic photograph or drawing that they originally existed on the windows.

In all cases, the original brickmold shall be retained or its size and its general profile duplicated. Brickmolds and window sills shall not be wrapped in coil stock.

2) Doors

Original or historic doors when visible shall be preserved through in-kind repair and maintenance. Security bars or security screens are not permitted on a door above the basement level unless it can be demonstrated through an historic photograph or drawing that they originally existed on the doors. Leaded, colored, and reflective glass shall not be used as a replacement material in door panel that was not originally or historically that material. If original and historic doors have been removed, or cannot be repaired, replacement doors will be wood and replicate the design and proportions of an historic door appropriate for the design of the building. Raw or unfinished aluminum is not acceptable for storm doors. See paragraphs B.9 and IV.B.2 9 below for guidance on modifications for accessibility.

3) Porches and Balconies

Porches, verandas, and balconies are considered to be character-defining features on buildings in the historic district, and careful attention should be paid to their maintenance and/or restoration. Original or historic porches, verandas, and balconies, including their component elements such as columns, pilasters, handrails, balusters, pediments, cornices, steps, etc., shall be preserved through in-kind repair and maintenance when visible. Photographic evidence will be provided of the deteriorated condition of an original or historic porch, veranda, or balcony or any of its component elements to justify replacement. The replacement elements shall replicate the originals in size, dimensions, proportion, profile, shape, geometric pattern, color, and, in the case of column shafts, taper or entasis. Replicas shall be made of the same materials as the historic porch or porch component. In rare instances when a persuasive argument is presented, a compatible substitute material may be considered. In the case of non-structural ornamental detail situated at or above cornice-level, replicated elements may be fabricated of a substitute material, for example cast stone or molded fiberglass, that exactly replicates the details and dimensions of the original. If an original or historic porch, veranda, or balcony, or any constituent element(s) thereof, has/have been removed, these may be replicated when evidence, (e.g., an historic drawing or photograph) is available to document what was previously there.

4) Architectural Detail

Original or historic details shall be preserved through in-kind repair and maintenance and shall not be obscured, covered or sheathed. Photographic evidence will be provided of the deteriorated condition of original or historic details and component elements such as pediments, fascias, cornices, brackets, dentils, pilasters, columns, capitals, bases, etc., to justify replacement. The replacements shall exactly replicate the original or historic details and component elements in size, dimensions, proportion, profile, shape, geometric pattern, color, and in the case of column shafts, entasis or taper. Replicas shall be of the same materials as the original or historic details or component elements, or may be fabricated of a substitute material, for example cast stone or molded fiberglass, that exactly replicates the size, proportion, profile, shape, color, and geometric pattern of the original or historic element. If an original or historic detail or component element has been removed, it should be replicated when evidence (e.g., an historic drawing or photograph) is available to document what was originally there.

5) Awnings, Canopies, and Wooden Shutters

Canvas awnings that have the form of traditional, retractable awnings, mounted within window openings are appropriate on residential structures. Canopies are often found over side or carriage entrances as well as front entrances. They are constructed of iron and glass, copper-sheathed wood and other hard materials. These shall be preserved or, if they have been removed, may be replicated when evidence (e.g., an historic drawing or photograph) is available to document what was originally there. Canvas-covered, metal-framed canopies may be appropriate at entrances to multi-family residential buildings. Original operable wooden shutters should be preserved or replicated when they have been removed. Replacement shutters shall match the original or historic shutters in appearance, be constructed so as to be, or appear to be, operational and shall have appropriate hardware. Most importantly, shutter dimensions and shape shall equal those of the window opening.

6) Entry Vestibules

Entry vestibules originally designed as open, i.e., without doors, shall not be enclosed.

7) Roofs

The visible form of the roof, as in its shape and pitch, and the presence or absence of dormers and other roof elements, shall not be altered. Materials used on historic pitched roofs and dormers in the historic district are slate, terra cotta mission tile, copper, and terne metal. Original or existing slate, tile and metal roofs shall be preserved through repair and maintenance. Original or historic roof material shall not be replaced with another type of historic material that would change the character of the roof: i.e., replacing historic ceramic tiles with slate shingles. Photographic evidence shall be provided of the deteriorated condition of roofing materials to justify replacement. Original or historic roofing material shall be used wherever the roof is visible. Materials that replicate the original may be used if the original or historic material is unavailable and the substitute material is approved by the Cultural Resources Office. Skylights shall not be introduced in existing roofs where visible from the sidewalk or street. Existing historic skylights should be restored or replaced in kind. Removal of non-historic modern skylights that are visible from the sidewalk or street is encouraged.

8) Chimneys

Chimneys are a character-defining feature of buildings within the historic district and shall be preserved through repair and maintenance. If an original or historic chimney has been altered or removed, it should be restored when an historic drawing, photograph, or physical evidence is available to document what was previously extant.

9) Modifications for Accessibility

The guidance above shall not prohibit the installation of a handrail or ramp that provides accessibility to people with disabilities. A discreet ramp to the main entrance may be constructed, but only in a manner that minimizes its impact on the historic building. The ramp shall not dominate the front of the building and shall not obscure character-defining architectural features. No historic fabric from the entrance steps, stoop or porch shall be removed or significantly impacted by the construction of a ramp. The use of traditional landscape elements that incorporate a ramp or shield it from view is encouraged.

Site Work

A. Walls, Fences and Enclosures

Walls, fences, gates and other enclosures form an important part of the overall streetscape. Original or historic walls, iron fences and gates, gatehouses, and other enclosures, as well as arches and other historic architectural features, shall always be preserved through repair and maintenance. When non-original or non-historic retaining walls or tie-walls require replacement, the original grade of the site shall be returned if feasible or more appropriate materials shall be used. New walls, fences and other enclosures shall be brick, stone, stucco, wood, wrought iron or evergreen or deciduous hedge when visible from the sidewalk or street, as is consistent with the existing dominant materials within the historic district.

Opaque fences or walls are permitted only along alleys or enclosing the side and/or rear yard of the primary structure. No opaque fence shall be erected in front of the primary structure on the lot. An exception to this prohibition may occur at corner properties on heavily traveled thoroughfares where a side yard fence set back from the property line a minimum of three (3) feet to create a landscape area with appropriate evergreen and deciduous planting would be acceptable. Transparent fences and/or evergreen or deciduous hedges may extend beyond the front building line.

B. Landscaping

If there is a predominance of a particular feature, type or quality of landscape design, any new landscaping shall be compatible when considering mass and continuity. In particular, original or historic earth terraces shall be preserved and shall not be altered or interrupted by the introduction of retaining walls, landscape ties, architectural or landscaping concrete block, etc. Wherever such retaining walls have compromised historic terraces, the removal of the walls and restoration of the historic terraces is encouraged. Where appropriate, tree lawns shall be preserved or restored.

C. Paving and Ground Cover Materials

Where there is a predominant use of a particular ground cover or paving material, any new or added material should be compatible with the existing streetscape. Crushed rock is not acceptable for paving or as a replacement material for lawns or vegetative ground cover. Asphalt is not an acceptable material for walkways or for driveways when visible from the sidewalk or street. Brick paving, when used, should be installed with a compacted or constructed base and with materials and techniques that will provide a stable, firm and slip-resistant surface suitable as an accessible route.

D. Exterior Furnishings, Lighting and Utilities

The design and location of all permanent exterior furnishings such as gazebos, garden sheds, and fountains require a permit approved by the Cultural Resources Office prior to placement. They shall either have authentic period styling or be of high quality contemporary design and be of a material and scale appropriate to the main building and the landscape in which they are situated. Special permits must be obtained if street furniture is placed in the public right-of-way.

Original or historic light standards, lamps, and lanterns shall be preserved through repair and maintenance. If they have been removed, their replication is encouraged when an historic drawing or photograph is available to document what was originally there. All new lighting fixtures, whether free-standing or attached to a structure, shall be either authentic period styling or high quality contemporary design of appropriate material and size and shall be of scale and height appropriate to the building where they are installed. In all cases, attention shall be given to the quality or intensity of light emitted to ensure that it is compatible with the character of the historic residential environment. No exposed conduit shall be used. Well-designed landscape and architectural lighting is permitted; however, lighting fixtures must either be recessed or screened by plantings. Security lighting shall not be of a direction or intensity that is invasive of neighboring properties or pedestrians. All exterior lighting must comply with the attached guidelines (Appendix 6) that limit light pollution. Where possible, new utility lines shall be underground.

E. Mechanical Equipment

HVAC condensing units, solar panels, communication devices, such as satellite dishes, antennae, etc., shall not be visible from the sidewalk or street. Condensing units should be placed on the rear of the building's roof or at the rear of the property and should be screened appropriately. Electrical meters and conduit should be placed in an unobtrusive location and be painted to match the building. Free-standing cell towers are not permitted in the historic district. Cell towers that are incorporated in church steeples or on roofs of tall buildings shall not be visible from the street or sidewalk.

F. Signs

All signs within the historic district shall be reviewed and permitted by the Cultural Resources Office and be appropriate to the character of the building they identify.

G. Curb Cuts and Driveways

Where curb cuts for vehicles and driveways did not historically exist, new ones shall not be introduced. Curb cuts for pedestrians at street intersections, mid-block crossings, passenger drop-off and loading zones, and similar locations shall be allowed. However, where a parcel is not served by alley access, proposed exceptions shall be considered on a case-by-case basis and evaluated for design suitability. Removal of non-historic curb cuts and driveways and restoration of the historic landscape, tree lawn, and curbing is encouraged.

New Construction or Additions to Existing Residential or Institutional Buildings:

When designing a new residential or institutional building, the height, scale, mass, and materials of the existing buildings and the context of the immediate surroundings shall be strongly considered. When designing an addition to an historic building, the addition shall be compatible in height, scale, mass, and materials to the historic fabric of the original building. The new addition, however, should be easily distinguishable from the existing historic building.

A. Height, Scale and Mass

A new low-rise building, including all appurtenances, must be constructed within 15 percent of the average height of existing low-rise buildings that form the block-face. Floor levels, water tables and foundation levels shall appear to be at the same level as those of neighboring buildings. When one roof shape is employed in a predominance of existing buildings in the streetscape, any proposed new construction or alteration shall follow the same roof design.

A new high-rise building may be located either on a block face with existing high-rise structures or on a corner site. A new high-rise building may exceed the average height of existing structures on the relevant block face. In all cases, window levels, water tables and foundation levels of the new building shall be comparable to those of neighboring buildings. Special emphasis shall be given to the design of the building base and to upper story setbacks as they relate to and affect neighboring buildings.

For those portions of the historic district located in areas governed by Form Based Zoning, the building heights prescribed for new construction have been determined appropriate from both the historic district and Form Based Zoning perspectives. The 3-story minimum height for these areas is hereby adopted by these Standards. The maximum heights for Boulevard Type 1 Development (24 stories west of Newstead Avenue and 12 stories east of Newstead Avenue) are hereby adopted. For the small area of the historic district within the Neighborhood Core Development area of the Form Based Zoning code, the 6-story minimum height and unlimited maximum height are also adopted.

For Form Based Zoning that occurs after the adoption of these standards, consultation shall determine appropriate heights for new buildings within the historic district that will not directly conflict with these standards and should be used in conjunction with these standards.

B. Location

A new or relocated structure shall be positioned on its respective lot so that the width of the façade and the distance between buildings shall be within 10 percent of such measurements for a majority of the existing structures on the block face to ensure that any existing rhythm of recurrent building masses to spaces is maintained. The established setback from the street shall also be strictly maintained. Garages and other accessory buildings, as well as parking pads, must be sited to the rear of, and if at all possible, directly behind the main building on the lot.

C. Exterior Materials

In the historic district, brick and stone masonry and stucco are dominant, with terra cotta, wood and metal used for trim and other architectural features. Exterior materials on new construction shall conform to established uses. For example, roof materials shall be slate, tile, copper or architectural composite shingles where the roof is visible from public or common areas.

All new building materials shall be the same as the dominant materials of adjacent buildings. Artificial masonry is not permitted, except that cast stone that replicates sandstone or limestone is allowed when laid up in the same manner as natural stone. Cementitious or other paintable siding of appropriate dimension is an acceptable substitute for wood clapboards. A submission of samples of all building materials, including mortar, shall be required prior to approval.

The pointing of mortar joints on masonry additions to historic buildings shall match that on the original building in color, texture, composition and joint profile.

D. Fenestration

New buildings and building additions shall be designed with window openings on all elevations visible from the street. Windows on the front façade shall be of the same proportions and operation as windows in adjacent buildings and their total area should be within 10% of the window area of the majority of buildings on the block.

E. Decks

Given the urban context of the neighborhood, the relative narrowness of building lots, and the general interests of privacy, terraces or patios at grade are preferable to elevated decks. When it is desired to construct a deck, such construction shall be at the rear of the residence. Where visible from the street, design and construction shall be compatible with the building to which it is appended, and the deck shall be constructed of finished materials, be of a shape and scale similar to that of an historic porch or patio, and be partially screened with landscaping or opaque fencing to limit visibility.

F. Accessory Buildings

A new accessory building, including a garage, shall be designed and constructed in a manner that is complementary in quality and character with the primary structure and neighboring buildings. Complementary structures are appropriate in scale and use a similar type and quality of materials. Design details from the main building should not be replicated, but such details may be modified and reduced in scale to express the same architectural presence in a simpler way. When not visible, materials other than those of the primary building may be used for exterior walls.

G. Curb Cuts and Driveways

Where curb cuts for vehicles and driveways did not exist historically, new ones shall not be introduced. Curb cuts for pedestrians at street intersections, mid-block crossings, passenger drop-off and loading zones, and similar locations shall be allowed. Where a parcel is not served by alley access, proposed exceptions shall be considered on a case-by-case basis and evaluated for design suitability.

H. Coordination with Form Based Zoning

When portions of the historic district are located in an area for which a form-based code has been adopted, the Regulating Plan, Building Envelope Standards and Building Development Standards will be used in conjunction with these standards to review new construction within that portion of the historic district.

IV. COMMERCIAL BUILDING DESIGN STANDARDS

Repairs and Rehabilitation to Historic Commercial Buildings
On historic commercial buildings, original architectural elements as decorative details, windows, brackets, friezes, balconies, shutters, historic glass, etc. provide texture that is an important feature of the historic district. In an effort to retain this texture, substitution of historic materials is discouraged. Wherever possible, elements should be repaired, rather than replaced. The Cultural Resources Office should be contacted for professional advice. Addition or removal of decorative elements, e.g., window pediments, bracketed hoods over doors, door surrounds, etc. normally is prohibited unless replacement would return the building to its original design. Proposed exceptions shall be subject to review for design suitability and approval by the Cultural Resources Office staff.

A. Materials

Original or historically significant materials shall be maintained and repaired rather than replaced. Where repair is not possible, materials should be replaced in-kind, i.e., new materials should match the existing in type, size, shape, profile, and material. Use of imitative materials on historic commercial buildings is generally discouraged and will be evaluated on a case-by-case basis.

1) Masonry - Bricks and Mortar; Stone

Repair and replace damaged bricks and mortar with new bricks and mortar to match existing. Repair damaged stone with new stone to match existing. Care should be taken to repoint historic masonry with mortar that matches the existing in color, texture, strength, and composition. Using an inappropriate mortar mix with a higher concentration of Portland cement can cause damage to historic bricks and stone. Mortar joints should also match the existing (original) joint profile, i.e., concave tooled joint, v-shaped joint, flush joint, etc. Information on an appropriate mortar mix is available on line from the National Park Service's Preservation Brief #2 (Appendix 2).

Previously unpainted brick or stone shall not be painted. Where masonry has been painted, either in contravention of these standards or prior to their adoption, and paint can be safely removed, this should be done.
Waterproof coatings on historic masonry are not permitted because their application can result in damage to the building. See National Park Service's Preservation Brief #1 (Appendix 1) for more information on this topic.

Sandblasting of masonry, either for cleaning or paint removal, is prohibited. Other cleaning and paint removal techniques require a permit that must be approved by the Cultural Resources Office.

2) Stucco

Repair existing stucco with stucco that matches the original stucco in strength, color, texture, and composition. Information on an appropriate mix and the correct method of repair for historic stucco can be obtained from the National Park Service's Preservation Brief #22 (Appendix 5). As much original stucco as possible should be retained. New stucco should never be applied over existing stucco. If the original finish or texture is evident, it should be replicated in the new stucco. Masonry that shows no evidence of previous stucco applications shall not have stucco applied to it. In many instances the patina of historic stucco is an important feature and should be left unpainted. Waterproof coatings on historic stucco are not permitted. Prefabricated cementitious stucco may be used on non-visible facades and new accessory structures. See the National Park Service's Preservation Brief #1 (Appendix 1) for more information on this topic.

3) Siding

Wholesale replacement of original historic siding is discouraged. When it is necessary to replace deteriorated siding, it should be replaced with siding that matches the size, thickness, exposure, and profile of the original. Synthetic materials such as vinyl siding are not appropriate for historic buildings and their use is not permitted in the historic district. Where inappropriate siding materials have been used, their removal is encouraged. Cementitious (cement/fiberglass) siding is permissible if demonstrated to match the historic material in appearance and when used in an entire replacement or in upper-story areas. Other innovative substitute materials shall be subject to evaluation for appropriateness by the Cultural Resources Office on a case-by-case basis.

4) Paint

Although there is no specific palette of "approved colors," the color of paint used should be appropriate to the style of architecture, the character of the adjacent buildings, and the neighborhood.

B. Architectural Elements

Original or historically significant architectural features shall be maintained and repaired rather than replaced. Architectural elements on existing structures shall be maintained in their original size, proportion, detailing and material(s). No historic architectural detail or trim shall be obscured, covered or sheathed with material of any kind, it being understood, however, that historically correct awnings or shutters may partially obscure some details when viewed from certain angles. (See paragraph B.5.)

1) Windows

For more information on this subject, see the National Park Service's Preservation Brief #9 (Appendix 3).

The windows in historic buildings in the historic district include two broad categories that shall be considered in different ways:

a) Special Windows. These windows are character-defining features of historic buildings and are usually found on a street-facing façade. They may be quite large, as in a stair hall window. They may have an unusual pattern of divided lights, or muntins, or an unusual configuration muntins; a fanlight window is an example. Special windows might have leaded, colored or "art glass" or curved glass. Due to the importance of these windows in the character of the historic building, and the difficulty in replicating these windows, they shall be preserved through in-kind repair and maintenance. Enhanced thermal efficiency shall be achieved with the use of caulking, glazing compound, weatherstripping and/or interior or exterior storm sash compatible in design and color with the existing fenestration. If Special Windows must be replaced, property owners shall obtain custom-made replicas in order to preserve the character of the windows.

b) Standard Windows. Standard Windows have sash that was typical for the time and style of the building and do not have any unusual qualities. Common 1/1 double-hung windows (two operable sashes with undivided clear glass panes) are Standard Windows, whereas diamond-patterned casement windows are Special Windows. Standard Windows appear on the front façade and other walls of buildings. The location and visibility of these windows determine what is appropriate if and when they are replaced.

The historic character of a building is best maintained through the preservation of original and historic Standard Window sash and trim through maintenance and repair. That approach should be the first choice when windows require attention.

Exterior storm windows are recommended for Standard Windows. Storm sash must fit within the frame of the existing window and match its glass area: e.g., the horizontal division of the storm window must align with the meeting rail of a double-hung window. Raw or unfinished aluminum is not acceptable for storm windows. Historic brickmolds and window frames shall not be obscured or sheathed in any way to accommodate storm windows.

If the property owner proposes to replace historic Standard Windows, the replacement components (e.g., brickmolds, mullions, sash, muntins, and other window details) shall match the originals in height, width, depth, profile, shape, and geometric pattern. Windows with arched heads shall be replaced with windows with arched heads that reproduce the radius of the original arch. The replacement sash shall replicate, or appear to replicate, the original in operation. Proposed replacement components, i.e., sash and/or trim, shall be evaluated for compliance with these criteria. Manufacturers' standard products can be approved for installation when they replicate historic or original sash, and if they fit the openings. Each window replacement project must identify appropriate sash and trim that meet the criteria.

Standard Windows in Street-facing Façades

1. Windows in all street-facing façades shall be, in order of preference:

a. Existing windows, repaired and retained.

b. Replacement windows, if existing windows are not historic and/or cannot be repaired and kept in use. Replacement windows shall duplicate the original, and meet the requirements for replication of height, width, depth, profile, shape, geometric pattern, and installation. (See paragraph above.) Glass size in replacement windows shall be the same as that of the original sash.

2. Replacement windows shall be wood, clad wood, or a composite material.

No existing window opening in a street-facing façade shall be altered in length or width, or be blocked in on the exterior. No new window openings shall be created in a street-facing façade.

Standard Windows in Visible Side Elevations

Replacement windows on highly-visible side elevations shall meet the requirements for windows in street-facing façades. These windows shall be of wood, wood-clad, or aluminum.

Replacement windows seen only at a very oblique angle, or at such a distance, where materials and details cannot be perceived from the public areas of the historic district shall maintain the size, configuration and operation of original/historic windows and trim, but may be wood, aluminum, or vinyl.

New openings where no windows existed before shall be the same proportion as adjacent windows and shall be toothed-in, not saw-cut. Where existing windows are to be made shorter or longer, the width of the opening shall remain the same. Windows may be converted to doors by lengthening the vertical dimension, but not the horizontal one.

Windows to be abandoned shall be filled in with painted shutters, retaining window sills and brickmold; or by brick that matches the adjacent brick to the extent possible and is set back from the plane of the exterior wall by 2 inches. Arches or lintels above the openings shall be retained; sills may be removed.

Standard Windows on Rear Elevations

Replacement windows may be of any material. Window openings may be altered.

Windows in rear façades of corner buildings that are as fully articulated as the side façade shall meet the standards of windows in visible side elevations.

c) General Requirements

Neither leaded nor art glass shall be used as a replacement in windows that were originally or historically clear glass. The use of reflective or tinted window glass (as distinguished from art glass) and glass block is prohibited unless proven to be the original material.

Security bars or security screens are not permitted on windows above the basement level unless it can be demonstrated through an historic photograph or drawing that they originally existed on the windows.

In all cases, the original brickmold shall be retained or its size and its general profile duplicated. Brickmolds and window sills shall not be wrapped in coil stock.

2) Doors

Original or historic doors when visible shall be preserved through repair and maintenance. If original and historic doors have been removed, or cannot be repaired, replacement doors will be wood and replicate the proportions of the appropriate historic door. Security bars or screens are not permitted on doors above the basement level unless it can be demonstrated through an historic photograph or drawing that they originally existed on the doors. Use of reflective or tinted glass (as distinguished from art glass) in doors is prohibited. Leaded, colored, and reflective glass shall not be used as a replacement material in door panel that was not originally or historically that material.

In order to provide accessibility to people with disabilities to commercial spaces and places of public accommodation, it may be necessary to install a ramp or sloped pavement. Such work shall not destroy historic fabric, although providing access to enter a rehabilitated space is a high priority and shall be provided if at all possible. Slight modifications to the entrance may be acceptable to provide 32-inch-wide openings, flush thresholds, and the use of swing-clear hinges. When entrance hardware of historic commercial properties or places of public accommodation have pinch and twist functions that are not accessible, the historic hardware shall be maintained while allowing the door to function as a push/pull operation during business hours. Automatic door opening mechanisms may be installed in a manner that does not harm historic materials.

3) Porches and Balconies

Porches, verandas, and balconies are considered to be character-defining features on buildings in the historic district, and careful attention should be paid to their maintenance and/or restoration. Original or historic porches, verandas, and balconies including their component elements such as columns, pilasters, hand rails, balusters, pediments, cornices, steps, etc., shall be preserved through in-kind repair and maintenance when visible. Photographic evidence will be provided of the deteriorated condition of an original or historic porch, veranda, or balcony or any of its component elements to justify replacement. The replacements shall replicate the originals in size, proportion, dimensions, height, profile, shape, and geometric pattern, color, and, in the case of column shafts, taper or entasis. Replicas shall be made of the same materials as the historic porch or porch component unless this is not technically feasible, in which case a compatible substitute material, from which replicas are fashioned as described above, may be considered. In the case of non-structural ornamental detail situated at or above cornice-level, including column or pilaster capitals, replicated elements may be fabricated of a substitute material, for example cast stone or molded fiberglass, that exactly replicates the dimensions of the original. If an original or historic porch, veranda, or balcony, or any constituent element(s) thereof has/have been removed, these may be replicated when evidence (e.g. an historic drawing or photograph) is available to document what was previously extant.

4) Architectural Detail

Original or historic cornice detail shall be preserved through repair and maintenance and shall not be obscured, covered or sheathed. Photographic evidence will be provided of the deteriorated condition of an original or historic details and component elements such as pediments, fascias, cornices, brackets, dentils, pilasters, columns, capitals, bases, etc., to justify replacement. The replacements shall exactly replicate the original or historic details and component elements in size, proportion, dimensions, profile, shape, geometric pattern, color, and in the case of column shafts, entasis or taper. Replicas shall be of the same materials as the original or historic details or component elements, or may be fabricated of a substitute material, for example cast stone or molded fiberglass, that exactly replicates the size, proportion, profile, shape, color, and geometric pattern of the original or historic element. If an original or historic detail or component element has been removed, it should be replicated when evidence (e.g., an historic drawing or photograph) is available to document what was previously there.

5) Awnings, Canopies, and Wooden Shutters

Canvas awnings that have the form of traditional, retractable awnings, mounted within window openings, are appropriate on commercial structures. All awnings shall conform in size, shape, material and style to the opening to which they are attached. Barrel or balloon shapes should be avoided in favor of traditional sloped shapes with or without valances and end pieces, and all awnings shall fit within the openings to which they are affixed.

Canopies are constructed of iron and glass, copper-sheathed wood and other hard materials. These should be preserved or, if they have been removed, may be replicated when an historic drawing or photograph is available to document what was previously extant. Canvas-covered, metal-framed canopies are appropriate at entrances to hotels and other commercial buildings.

Original operable wooden shutters should be preserved or replicated when they have been removed. Replacement shutters much match the original or historic shutters in appearance and material, shall be or appear to be operational and have the appropriate hardware. Shutter dimensions and shape shall equal those of the window opening and be properly mounted. Fixed shutters are not appropriate.

6) Entry Vestibules

If an entry vestibule originally designed as open (e.g., without a door) is proposed for closure to meet a building's security or energy use needs, such alteration of the entry shall be considered on a case-by-case basis.

7) Roofs

The visible form of the roof, its shape and pitch, and the presence or absence of dormers and other roof elements, shall not be altered. Materials used on historic pitched roofs and dormers in the historic district are slate, terra cotta mission tile, copper, and terne metal. Original slate, tile and metal roofs shall be preserved through repair and maintenance. Original or historic roof material shall not be replaced with another type of historic material that would change the character of the roof: i.e., replacing historic ceramic tile with slate shingles. Photographic evidence shall be provided of the deteriorated condition of original or historic roofing materials to justify replacement. When replacement materials are necessary, the original or historic material shall be used wherever the roof is visible from the sidewalk or street. Materials that replicate the original may be used if the original or historic material is unavailable and the substitute material is approved by the Cultural Resources Office. Skylights shall not be introduced in existing roofs when they are visible from the sidewalk or street. Existing historic skylights should be restored or replaced in kind. Removal of non-historical modern skylights that are visible from the sidewalk or street is encouraged.

8) Chimneys

Chimneys are a character-defining feature of buildings within the historic district and shall be preserved through repair and maintenance. If an original or historic chimney has been altered or removed, it should be restored when an historic drawing or photograph, or physical evidence is available to document what was previously extant.

9) Storefronts

The area of the first floor historically enclosed with a storefront shall not be expanded or reduced. When original and historic storefront fabric is present, it shall be retained and restored or rehabilitated.

When an original or historic storefront no longer exists, the replacement storefront shall conform to the following applicable situation:

a) If part of a building with other intact historic storefronts, it shall respect the scale, proportion, pattern, color, details and material of those historic storefronts; or

b) If part of a building with no remaining historic storefronts, it shall be compatible with the rest of the building in scale, design, materials, color and texture and may be of contemporary design.

Prefabricated commercial storefront framing components, tinted glazing, and clear-finish aluminum are not appropriate for infill storefronts of historic buildings in the historic district.
Additional guidance and insight to storefront design in the context of historic buildings can be found in National Park Service's Preservation Brief #11 (Appendix 4).

Site Work

A. Walls, Fences and Enclosures

Walls, fences, gates and other enclosures form an important part of the overall streetscape. Original or historic walls, iron fences and gates, gatehouses, and other enclosures, as well as arches, and other historic architectural features, shall always be preserved through repair and maintenance. When non-original or non-historic retaining walls or tie-walls require replacement, the original grade of the site shall be returned if feasible or more appropriate materials shall be used. New walls, fences and other enclosures shall be brick, stone, stucco, wood, wrought iron or evergreen or deciduous hedge when visible from the sidewalk or street, as is consistent with the existing dominate materials within the historic district.

Opaque fences or walls are permitted only along alleys or enclosing the side and rear yard of the primary structure. No opaque fence shall be erected in front of the primary structure on the lot. An exception to this prohibition may occur at corner properties. Where the building abuts the sidewalk and outdoor café dining is permitted, a metal fence of simple design may be erected to enclose the dining area and separate it from pedestrian traffic. A minimum 48" clear accessible route is required for pedestrian traffic whether or not the dining area is enclosed.

B. Parking

All off-street parking, whether a surface lot or a parking structure, that is required for new or existing commercial buildings shall be located behind or to the side of the building. Where visible from the street, parking shall be effectively screened using appropriate materials such as masonry walls, iron fencing, opaque landscaping, etc. Where possible, entry and exit to all parking shall be from an alley; or if this is not possible, from a secondary street.

C. Landscaping

If there is a predominance of a particular feature, type or quality of landscape design, any new landscaping shall be compatible when considering mass and continuity. In particular, original or historic earth terraces shall be preserved and shall not be altered or interrupted by the introduction of retaining walls, landscape ties, architectural or landscaping concrete block, etc. Wherever such retaining walls have compromised historic terraces, the walls' removal and restoration of the terraces is encouraged. Where appropriate, tree lawns shall be preserved or restored.

D. Paving and Ground Cover Materials

Where there is a predominant use of a particular ground cover or paving material, any new or added material should be compatible with the existing streetscape. Crushed rock is not acceptable for paving or as a replacement material for lawns or vegetative ground cover. Brick paving, when used, should be installed with a compacted or constructed base and with materials and techniques that will provide a stable, firm and slip-resistant surface suitable as an accessible route. Asphalt is not acceptable for walkways or for drive- ways visible from the sidewalk or street.

E. Exterior Furnishings, Lighting and Utilities

The design and location of all permanent exterior furnishings such as gazebos, garden sheds, and fountains require a permit approved by the Cultural Resources Office prior to placement. They shall either have authentic period styling or be of high quality contemporary design and be of a material and scale appropriate to the main building and the landscape in which they are situated. Special permits must be obtained if street furniture is placed in the public right-of-way.

Original or historic light standards, lamps, and lanterns shall be preserved through repair and maintenance. If they have been removed, their replication is encouraged when an historic drawing or photograph is available to document what was originally there. All new lighting fixtures, whether free-standing or attached to a structure, shall be either authentic period styling or high quality contemporary design and shall be of a scale and height appropriate to the building to which they are appurtenant. In all cases, attention shall be given to the quality or intensity of light emitted to ensure that it is compatible with the character of the historic commercial environment. No exposed conduit shall be used. Well-designed landscape and architectural lighting is permitted; however, lighting fixtures must either be recessed or be screened by plantings. Security lighting shall not be of a direction or intensity that is invasive of neighboring properties. All exterior lighting must comply with guidelines that limit light pollution. (Appendix 6.) Where possible, new utility lines shall be underground.

F. Mechanical Equipment

HVAC condensing units, communication devices such as satellite dishes and antennae, etc., shall not be visible from the sidewalk or street. Condensing units should be placed on the roof or to the rear of the property and should be screened appropriately. Electrical meters and conduit should be placed in an unobtrusive location and be painted to match the building. Free-standing cell towers are not permitted in the historic district. Cell towers that are incorporated on roofs of tall buildings shall not be visible from the street or sidewalk.

G. Signs

Signs on commercial buildings shall be in accordance with applicable provisions of the zoning ordinance. Signs are further restricted as stated below.

The following are not allowed:

1. Non-appurtenant advertising signs.

2. Pylon signs.

3. Wall signs above the second floor window sill level.

4. Roof-top signs.

5. Projecting signs that obstruct the view of adjacent signs, obstruct windows or other architectural elements or extend above the second floor window sill level.

6. Signs with flashing or moving elements.
Only one projecting sign is permitted for each establishment, unless it occupies a corner storefront; in this case, two signs are permitted, one on each façade.

Brass or bronze wall plaques identifying the name of the business or businesses are appropriate and should be encouraged.

When an existing non-conforming sign needs to be replaced, it shall be replaced with a sign that conforms to these standards.

H. Curb Cuts and Driveways

No curb cuts for vehicles and driveways shall be introduced into the historic streetscape. Curb cuts for pedestrians at street intersections, mid-block crossings, passenger drop-off and loading zones, and similar locations shall be allowed. However, where a parcel is not served by alley access, proposed exceptions shall be considered on a case-by-case basis and evaluated for design suitability. Removal of non-historic curb cuts and driveways and restoration of original landscape, tree lawn, and curbing is encouraged.

New Construction or Alterations to Existing Commercial Structures:

When designing a new commercial building, or an addition to an historic commercial building, height, scale, mass, and materials in adjacent buildings as well as the context of the immediate surroundings, shall be strongly considered. When designing an addition to an historic building, the addition shall be compatible in height, scale, mass, and materials to the historic fabric of the original building. The new addition, however, shall be easily distinguishable from the existing historic building. The design of primary entrances to new commercial buildings shall afford accessibility in conjunction with aesthetic and contextual solutions.

A. Height

A new low-rise building, including all appurtenances, must be constructed within 15% of the average height of existing low-rise commercial buildings that form the block face. Floor levels, water tables and foundation levels shall appear to be at the same level as those of neighboring buildings. When one roof shape is employed in a predominance of existing buildings in the streetscape, any proposed new construction or alteration shall follow the same roof design.

A new high-rise building may be located either on a block face with existing high-rise structures or on a corner site. A new high-rise building may exceed the average height of existing structures on the relevant block faces. In all cases, floor levels, water tables and foundation levels of the new buildings shall be comparable to those of neighboring buildings. Special emphasis shall be given to the design of the building base and to upper story setbacks as they relate to and affect neighboring buildings.
For those portions of the historic district located in areas governed by Form Based Zoning, the building heights prescribed for new construction have been determined appropriate from both the historic district and Form Based Zoning perspectives. The 3-story minimum height for these areas is hereby adopted by these Standards. The maximum heights for Boulevard Type 1 Development (24 stories west of Newstead Avenue and 12 stories east of Newstead Avenue) are hereby adopted. For the small area of the historic district within the Neighborhood Core Development area of the Form Based Zoning Code, the 6-story minimum height and unlimited maximum height are also adopted.

For form-based zoning that occurs after the adoption of these standards, consultation shall determine appropriate heights for new buildings within the historic district that will not directly conflict with these standards and should be used in conjunction with these standards.

B. Location

A new or relocated structure shall be positioned on its respective lot so that the width of the façade and the distance between buildings shall be within 10% of such measurements for a majority of the existing structures on the block face to ensure that any existing rhythm of recurrent building masses to spaces is maintained. The established set back from the street shall also be maintained. Garages and other accessory buildings as well as parking pads must be sited to the rear of, and if at all possible, directly behind, the main building on the lot.

C. Exterior Materials

In the historic district, brick and stone masonry and stucco are dominant, with terra cotta, wood and metal used for trim and other architectural features. Roof materials shall be slate, clay tile, copper or architectural composite shingles where the roof is visible from public or common areas.

All new building materials shall be the same as the dominant materials of adjacent buildings. Artificial masonry is not permitted, except that cast stone that replicates sandstone or limestone is allowable when laid up in the same manner as the natural stone. Cementitious or other paintable siding of appropriate dimension is an acceptable substitute for wood clapboards. A submission of samples of all building materials, including mortar, shall be required prior to approval.

The pointing of mortar joints on masonry additions to historic buildings shall match that on the original building in color, texture, composition and joint profile.

D. Fenestration

New buildings and building additions shall be designed with window openings on all main elevations. Windows on the front façade shall be of the same proportions as windows in adjacent buildings and their total area should be within 10% of the window area of the majority of buildings on the block.

E. Accessory Buildings

When visible from the street, a new accessory building shall be designed and constructed in a manner that is complementary in quality and character to the primary structure and neighboring buildings.

F. Curb Cuts and Driveways

Where curb cuts for vehicles and driveways did not historically exist, they shall not be introduced. Curb cuts for pedestrians at street intersections, mid-block crossings, passenger drop-off and loading zones, and similar locations shall be allowed. Where a parcel is not served by alley access, proposed exceptions shall be considered on a case-by-case basis and evaluated for design suitability.

G. Coordination with Form Based Zoning

When portions of the historic district are located in an area for which a form based code has been adopted, the Regulating Plan, Building Envelope Standards and Building Development Standards will be used in conjunction with these standards to review new construction within that portion of the historic district.

V. Demolition

Buildings identified as contributing properties in the Central West End Certified Local Historic District are considered historically significant to the character and integrity of the historic district. However, construction continued after the period of significance identified for the district and those buildings may also be architecturally significant, having become part of the historic character of the Central West End. Any of these buildings determined eligible for listing in the National Register of Historic Places by the State Historic Preservation Officer or that are determined by the Cultural Resources Office to be Merit or High Merit properties are also historically significant. All architecturally and historically significant buildings are an irreplaceable asset, and as such their demolition is not allowed without a specific recommendation for demolition from the Cultural Resources Office, a full hearing by the Preservation Board, and approval by that Board.

When reviewing any application for demolition within the historic district, the Cultural Resources Office shall consider the following criteria:

1. Its architectural quality and special character, if any;

2. Condition of the building;

3. Its presence in the historic district, as in its relative visibility;

4. The immediate setting;

5. The impact of its removal on the urban fabric; and

6. Any construction proposed to replace it. 

These standards shall not be construed to prevent the ordinary maintenance or repair of any exterior feature in the historic district which does not involve a change in design, material, color or outward appearance, nor to prevent the demolition of any feature or structure which the building commissioner shall certify is dangerous and unsafe, nor to prevent the construction of necessary elements required to provide for accessibility and accessible routes throughout the neighborhood.

VI. Appendices

The following Preservation Briefs and lighting guidelines are appendices to this ordinance and part of the historic district's Standards. Copies of the Briefs can be found on line at: http://www.nps.gov/history/hps/tps/briefs/presbhom.htm.

1: Preservation Brief # 1, Assessing Cleaning and Water-Repellent Treatments for Historic Masonry Buildings

2: Preservation Brief # 2, Repointing Mortar Joints in Historic Masonry Buildings

3: Preservation Brief # 9, The Repair of Historic Wood Windows

4: Preservation Brief #11, Rehabilitating Historic Storefronts

5: Preservation Brief # 22, The Preservation and Repair of Historic Stucco

6: Simple Guidelines for Lighting Regulations. Source: International Dark-Sky Association website: http://www.darksky.org/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=745

Note: Appendices not included herein as they are available on the provided websites.

Legislative History
1ST READING REF TO COMM COMMITTEE COMM SUB COMM AMEND
01/11/2013
2ND READING FLOOR AMEND FLOOR SUB PERFECTN PASSAGE
ORDINANCE VETOED VETO OVR SIGNED BY MAYOR
69423

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